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地球科学进展  2011, Vol. 26 Issue (5): 499-506    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2011.05.0499
综述与评述     
油气藏埋存二氧化碳生物转化甲烷的机理和应用研究进展
魏小芳1,2,罗一菁2*,刘可禹1,3,帅燕华1
1.中石油勘探开发研究院提高采收率国家重点实验室, 北京100083;
2.中国石油大学(北京)重质油实验室,北京102249;
3.CSIRO Petroleum, P.O. Box 1130, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia
Research Progress on the Mechanism and Potential Application of CH4 Bioconversion from CO2 in Oil and Gas Reservoirs
Wei Xiaofang1,2, Luo Yijng2, Liu  Keyu1, 3, Shuai Yanhua1
1.State Key Laboratory of EOR, Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, CNPC, Beijing100083,China; 2.China University of Petroleum (Beijing) Heavy Oil Laboratory,Beijing102249, China;3.CSIRO Petroleum, P.O. Box 1130, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia
 全文: PDF(1139 KB)  
摘要:

埋存CO2生物转化CH4技术是利用油、气藏中内源微生物,以埋存的CO2为底物,通过CO2生物还原途径合成CH4的生物技术。此技术因兼备CO2减排的环保意义、生物合成CH4的再生能源意义、延长油气藏寿命和潜在经济收益等优势有着广泛应用前景。CO2的捕集、埋存和油气藏生物多样性为此技术的实施提供了可行性。油藏中低矿化度的地层水中存在产H2和CH4的微生物,一定的成岩阶段生物气藏成因主要源于代谢CO2/H2的甲烷菌。因此,一定条件下油气藏内源微生物能够生物转化CO2。但是,油气藏埋存CO2生物转化CH4的实现受到各种条件的制约,包括:发酵菌群、产H2菌群和甲烷菌群之间的合作关系;甲烷菌群结构是否合理;甲烷菌和硫酸盐还原菌两大菌群之间的竞争和共代谢关系;以及CO2还原需要的H2来源等。相对于已知的代谢途径,油气藏中CO2还原途径可能更加复杂。因此,无论是微生物学家还是石油工程师,通过调控油气藏参数来实现生物合成CH4还是一个很大的挑战。目前,埋存CO2生物转化甲烷处于研究的实验室探索阶段,需要突破的瓶颈是寻找合适的油气藏、激活内源微生物实现CH4的再生,达到有经济意义的CH4转化速率和转化率。尽管埋藏CO2生物转化CH4是一个仅有10年研究历史的新技术,相信不久的将来,此项生物技术的广泛应用将会为人类可再生能源和CO2减排做出贡献。

关键词: CO2生物转化CO2减排CH4提高采收率    
Abstract:

The bioconversion of CH4from the stored CO2 is a biotechnological solution that the injected CO2 is metabolized by indigenous microbes in depleted oil or gas reservoirs to produce CH4 by CO2 bioreduction pathway. It is potential applied and promising technology due to its environmental friendship for CO2 storage and sequestration, renewable energy of biogas CH4, extended oil and gas reservoirs development period, and the potential profit for enhanced gas or oil recovery. The CO2 Capture & Storage project and microbial diversity of reservoirs offer the solution feasibility. Hydrogenotrophic mesophilic or thermophilic methanogens are known to be common inhabitants in slightly saline formation water in oil and gas reservoirs. The distribution of CO2/H2 methanongens of biogas reservoirs changes with diagenetic stages. It has been shown that CO2 can be potentially bioconverted to CH4 in reservoirs under certain conditions. However, oil and gas reservoirs are complicated systems and the bioconversion is constrained by the relationships among the methanogens, fermentative bacteria and hydrogenproducing bacteria. The methanogen community structure and the cometabolization and competition between the two communities of Sulfate Reduction Bacteria (SRB) and methanogens may also impact the CO2 reduction. Compared to the discovered knowledge that CO2 bioreduction pathway is permissible, the process may be quite complicated to be realized in reservoirs. It is difficult to realize the CO2 bioreduction pathway without synthetic H2 supply. It is still a big challenge for both microbiologists and petroleum engineers to realize CH4 bioconversion from CO2 by parameters control in reservoirs. At present, the CO2 reduction research is at experimental stage in the laboratory, the breakthrough is to activate the suited reservoirs' microorganism consortium to realize the CH4 bioconversion in right way, to probe the profitable CH4 bioconversion rate and production velocity. Though the solution of CH4 bioconversion from injected CO2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is a fresh technique with less than ten years research history, it is believed that it is quite promising and will be applied for renewable energy and CO2 sequestration in the near future.

Key words: CO2 Bioconversion    CO2 Sequestration    CH4    Enhanced oil or gas recovery
收稿日期: 2010-05-05 出版日期: 2011-05-10
:  P967  
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目“生物气形成的母质来源研究”(编号:40873031);中国石油创新基金项目“难动用资源生物成气的可行性研究”(编号:2009D-5006-01-01)资助.

通讯作者: 罗一菁(1979-),女,安徽肥东人,讲师,主要从事微生物分子生物研究.     E-mail: luoyijing@cup.edu.cn
作者简介: 魏小芳(1970-),女,河北保定人,高级工程师,主要从事石油微生物及其应用研究. E-mail:weixfang@163.com
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引用本文:

魏小芳,罗一菁,刘可禹,帅燕华. 油气藏埋存二氧化碳生物转化甲烷的机理和应用研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2011, 26(5): 499-506.

Wei Xiaofang, Luo Yijng, Liu Keyu, Shuai Yanhua. Research Progress on the Mechanism and Potential Application of CH4 Bioconversion from CO2 in Oil and Gas Reservoirs. Advances in Earth Science, 2011, 26(5): 499-506.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2011.05.0499        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2011/V26/I5/499

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