Cerling T E, Wang Y. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in soil CO2 and soil carbonate: Theory, practice, and application to some prairie soils of the upper Midwestern North America[C]∥Yamasaki S, Boutton T W, eds. Mass Spectrometry of Soils. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc,1996:113-131.
 Eswaran H, Reich F, Kimble J M. Global soil carbon stocks[C]∥Lal R, Kimble J, Eswaran H, eds. Global Climate Change and Pedogenic Carbonates. Florida: Lewis Publishers, 2000:15-26.
 Pan Genxing. Pedogenic carbonates in aridic soils of China and the significance in terrestrial carbon transfer[J]. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University,1999,22(1):52-57. [潘根兴.中国干旱性地区土壤发生性碳酸盐及其在陆地系统碳转移上的意义[J].南京农业大学学报,1999,22(1):52-57.]
 Pan G, Guo T. Pedogenic carbonate of aridic soil in China and its significance in carbon sequestration in terrestrial systems[C]∥Lal R, Kimble J, Eswaran H, et al. Global Climate Change and Pedogenic Carbonates. Florida: Lewis Publishers, 2000:135-147.
 Cerling T E, Quade J. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in soil carbonates[C]∥Swart P, McKenzie J A, Lohmann K C, eds. Climate Change in Continental Isotopic Records. Washington DC: American Geophysical Union, 1993:217-231.
 Nordt L C, Wilding L P, Hallmark C T, et al. Carbon isotope composition of soil carbonates and their use in studying pedogenesis[C]∥Yamasaki S, Boutton T W, eds. Mass Spectrometry of Soils. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc, 1996:133-154.
 Mermut A R, Amoundson R, Cerling T E. The use of stable isotopes in studying carbonate dynamics in soils[C]∥Lal R, Kimble J, Eswaran H, eds. Global Climate Change and Pedogenic Carbonates. Florida: Lewis Publishers, 2000:65-85.
 Boutton T W, Nordt L C, Archer S R, et al. Stable carbon isotope ratios of soil organic matter and their potential use as indicators of paleoclimate[C]∥IAEA, ed. Isotope Techniques in the Study of Past and Current Environmental Changes in the Hydrosphere and the Atmosphere.Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency, 1993:445-459.
 O'Leary M H. Carbon isotopes in photosynthesis[J]. Bioscience, 1988, 38(5): 328-336.
 Boutton T W. Stable carbon isotope ratios of natural materials, II. Atmospheric, terrestrial, marine, and freshwater environments[C]∥Coleman D C, Fry B, eds. Carbon Isotope Techniques. New York: Academic Press, 1991:173-185.
 Singh J S, Gupta W H. Plant decomposition and soil respiration in terrestrial ecosystems[J]. Botanic Review,1977, 43:4 492-5 291.
 Bowden R D, Nadelhoffer K J, Boone R D, et al. Contributions of above ground litter, below ground litter, and root respiration to total soil respiration in a temperate mixed hardwood forest[J]. Canadian Journal of Forest Research,1993,23:1 402-1 407.
 Cerling T E, Solomon D K, Quade J, et al. On the composition of carbon in soil carbon dioxide[J]. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1991, 55:3 403-3 405.
 Cerling T E. The stable isotope composition of modern soil carbonate and its relationship to climate[J]. Earthand Planetary Science Letter,1984, 71: 229-240.
 Pan Genxing, Cao Jianhua, Zhou Yunchao. Soil carbon and its significance in carbon cycle of earth surface system[J]. Quaternary,2000,20(4):325-334.[潘根兴,曹建华,周运超.土壤碳及其在地球表层系统碳循环中的意义[J].第四纪研究,2000,20(4):325-334.]
 Han Jiamao, Jiang Wenying, Lü Houyuan, et al. Carbon and oxygen isotope composition of carbonate concretions in loess: II Carbon isotope and paleoaridity[J]. Quaternary Science,1995,16(4):367-376. [韩家懋,姜文英,吕厚远,等.黄土中钙结核的碳氧同位素研究(二)碳同位素及其古环境意义[J].第四纪研究,1995,16(4):367-376. ]
 Cerling T E. Stable carbon isotopes in palaeosol carbonates[J]. Special Pubslication of the international Association of Sedimentologists,1999, 27: 43-60.
 Craig H. The geochemistry of the stable carbon isotopes[J]. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta,1953, 3: 53-92.
 Salomons W, Mook W G. Isotope geochemistry of carbonate dissolution and reprecipitation in soils[J]. Soil Science, 1976, 122: 15-24.
 Salomons W, Mook W G. Isotope geochemistry of carbonates in the weathering zone[C]∥Fritz P, Frontes J C, eds. Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry. The Terrestrial Environmental B. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1986:239-269.
 Zheng S, Wang Y, Chen C. Studies on the stable isotopes in carbonates in Luochuan loess section: Applicability of the Ca nodules as paleoclimate indicators[C]∥Liu T, ed. Aspects of Loess Research. Beijing:China Ocean Press,1987:283-290.
 Quade J, Cerling T E, Bowman J R. Systematic variations in the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonate along elevation transects in the southern Great Basin, United States[J]. Geological Society America Bulletin,1989,101:464-475.
 Marion G H, Introne D S, Van Cleve K. The stable isotope geochemistry of CaCO3 on the Tanana River floodplain of interior Alaska, U.S.A.: Composition and mechanisms of formation[J]. Chemical Geology (Isotope Geoscience Section.),1991, 86: 97-110.
 Cerling T E, Quade J, Wang Y, et al. Carbon isotopes in soils and paleosols as ecological and paleoecolological indicators[J]. Nature,1989, 341: 138-139.
 Rabenhorst M C, Wilding L P, West L T. Identification of pedogenic carbonates using stable carbon isotope and microfabric analyses[J]. Soil Science Society of America Journal,1984,48:125-132.
 Deines P, Langmuir D, Harmon R S. Stable carbon isotope ratios and the existence of a gas phase in the evolution of groundwater[J]. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1974, 38:1 147-1 164.
 Nordt L C, Hallmark C T, Wilding L P, et al. Quantifying pedogenic carbonate accumulations using stable carbon isotopes[J]. Geoderma,1998, 82:115-136.
 West L T, Drees L R, Wilding L P, et al. Differentiation of pedogenic and lithogenic carbonate forms in Texas[J]. Geoderma,1988,43:271-287.
 Davidson G R. The stable isotopic composition and measurement of carbon in soil CO2[J]. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta,1995,59:2 485-2 489.
 Kelly E F, Amundson R G, Marino B D, et al. Stable carbon isotopic composition of carbonate in Holocene grassland soils[J]. Soil Science Society of America Journal,1991,55:1 651-1 658.
 Cole D R, Monger H C. Influence of atmospheric CO2 on the decline of C4 plants during the last deglaciation[J]. Nature,1994, 368: 533-536.
 Wang Y, Cerling T E, Effland W R. Stable isotope ratios of soil carbonate and soil organic matter as indicators of forest invasion of prairie near Ames, Iowa[J]. Oecologia,1993, 95: 365-369.
 Amundson R G, Chadwick O A, Sowers J M, et al. The stable isotope chemistry of pedogenic carbonates at Kyle Canyon, Nevada[J]. Soil Science Society of America Journal,1989,53 (1): 201-210.
 Amundson R G, Lund L J. Stable Isotope Geochemistry of a native ad irrigated Typic Natrargid in the San Joaquin Valley of California[J]. Soil Science Society of America Journal,1987, 51: 761-767.
 Wang D l, Anderson D W. Stable carbon isotopes of carbonate pendants from Chernozemic soils of Saskatchewan, Canada[J]. Geoderma,1998, 84: 309-322.
 Landi A, Mermut A R, Anderson D W. Origin and rate of pedogenic carbonate accumulationin in Saskatchewan soils, Canada[J]. Geoderma, 2003, 117: 143-156.
 Courty M A, Marlin C, Dever L, et al. The properties, genesis and environmental significance of calcitic pendents from the High Arctic Spitsbergen[J]. Geoderma,1994, 61: 71-102.
 Yong Il Lee, Ken ichiro Hisada. Stable isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonates of the Early Cretaceous Shimonoseki Subgroup, western Honshu, Japan[J]. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology,1999,153: 127-138.
 Cerling T E. Use of carbon isotopes in paleosols as an indicator of the p(CO2) of the paleoatmosphere[J]. Global Biogeochemical Cycles,1992, 6: 307-314.
 Magaritz M, Amiel A J. Calcium carbonate in a calcareous soil from the Jordan Valley, Israel: Its origin as revealed by the stable carbon isotope method[J]. Soil Science Society of America Journal,1980,44:1 059-1 062.
 Magaritz M, Amiel A. Influence of intense cultivation and irrigation on soil properties in the Jordon Valley, Israel: Recrystallization of Carbonate Minerals[J]. Soil Science Society of America Journal,1981, 45: 1 201-1 205.
 Amundson R G, Smith V S. Effects of irrigation on the chemical properties of a soil in the west San Joaquin Valley Califonia[J]. Arid Soil Research Rehabilitation,1988,2:1-17.
 Selehi M H, Khademi H, Eghbal M K, et al. Stable isotope geochemistry of carbonates and organic carbon in selected soils from Chaharmahal Bakhtiari province, Iran[J]. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis,2004,35:1 681-1 697.