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地球科学进展  1993, Vol. 8 Issue (5): 13-22    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.1993.05.0013
全球变化研究     
稻田CH4的传输
上官行健;王明星;陈德章;沈壬兴
中国科学院大气物理研究所,北京100029
THE TRANSPORT OF METHANE IN THE RICE PADDY FIELDS
Shangguan Xingjian,Wang Mingxing,Chen Dezhang and Shen Renxing
Institute of Atmospheric Physics,Academia Sinica,Beijing 100029
 全文: PDF(2454 KB)  
摘要:

通过对稻田CH4排放、土壤CH4产生率以及植物体CH4传输、气泡、液相扩散这三种排放路径的同时测量后发现:CH4氧化作用在下午CH4排放路径通畅时较小;阴雨天气造成CH4排放率降低会增加CH4在土壤中的氧化量。早稻CH4传输效率在6月上、中旬较高,晚稻则在水稻生长初期的7月下旬最高,这主要是两季水稻的生长季节中气候因子的差异造成的。只有在较短的时间尺度内,当水稻植物体、气候因素维持相对恒定时,CH4产生率和稻田甲烷排放才显出正相关性。 水稻植物体内有明显的CH4浓度梯度。水稻的切割控制实验发现,通过植物体排放CH4的比例随季节而变化,在进行单株植物体排放测量时发现了同样结果,早稻和晚稻CH4通过水稻植物体的传输平均分别占CH4总体排放的73.18%(43.07—97.88%〕及54.98%(11—99.95%);植物体对CH4排放的作用在早稻大于晚稻;水稻植物体排放CH4的能力的季节变化对早、晚稻类似,随着水稻的生长而不断增强,到水稻抽穗中期达到最大,以后则随水稻的成熟而变小;水稻植物体排放CH4的能力与水稻植物体的高度存在极大的线性正相关。土壤中CH4的浓度远远大于大气中的CH4含量(10—10~4倍),根部区域土壤CH4浓度小于水稻行间土壤中的;在垂直方向,CH4浓度在14cm深的土壤中最大,与土壤浅层有明显的梯度;CH4排放率与根部区域CH4浓度有极好的相关性。 早稻、晚稻通过气泡的CH4排放量分别占总数的24.14%及40.52%。在晚稻种植初期,丰富的有机物质、炎热的天气是气泡排放量很大的原因;在不种水稻的田中气泡排放要明显大于种有水稻的稻田;水稻田覆盖水中明确存在向上递减的CH4浓度梯度;早晚稻CH4通过液相扩散方式排放的CH4分别只占CH4总排放的2.68%及4.50%。

关键词: 甲烷传输水稻植物体稻田    
Abstract:

Simultaneous measurements of CH4 emission,CH4 production and transport through rice plant,gas bubble and diffusion in flooded water show that:low oxidation occurs in the afternoon when CH4 transport efficiency appears higher. CH4 emission rate is lower in cloudy and raining weather when the CH4 oxidation rate in the paddy soil higher. Higher transport efficiency appears in early and middle June for the early rice,while for the late rice,it is in late July shortly after rice is transplanted. This difference is mainly caused by different weather trend in the individual rice growing period. Because the relative importance of methane oxidation is not the same in the whole rice growing period,the seasonal variation of CH4 production rate in the paddy soil can not explain that of CH4 emission. Better correlation between the two parameters may happen only in a short time period when rice growing status and weather condition remain relatively stable.Obvious concentration gradient is observed in the internal space of rice plant. Higher CH4 emission rates have been measured in the weeds-growing field than in unplanted field , and the former is very similar to that of rice-planted field. The seasonal variation in non-rice-planted field is different from that in rice planted field,with no peak before harvesting. Experiments show that the portion emitted through rice plant is changing during the growing season. For early and late rice,methane emitted through rice plant accounts in average for 73. 18% (43. 07-97. 88%) and 54. 98% (11. 00 - 99. 95%) of the total flux re- spectively. The above result shows that the role of rice plant in methane emission is greater for early rice. The seasonal variation of transport ability of rice plant appears similar for early and late rice, which increases with the time and reaches maximum at mid-heading stage,then decreases with rice riping. The CH4 transport ability of rice correlates well linearly with the plant height. CH4 concentration in soil pore water is much higher than that in the atmosphere(10 -104 times). Less amount of methane desolved in root soil has been found than that in the soil between rice-plants. Maximum concentration of CH4 appears at the depth of 14cm,appearent concentra tion gradient is observed along verticeal direction. Very good correlation between CH4 emission and the amount desolved in root soil has been observed.The CH4 emitted by gas bubble accounts in average for 24. 14% and 40. 52% of the total flux respectively for early and late rice. At the beginning of late rice planting, the aboundance of organic matter in the soil and hot weather condition make the ebulltion flux very high. The CH4 bubble emission is higher in the unplanted field than that in rice-planted one. The concentration gradient to the water surface in flooded water can be easily seen, which accounts for 2. 68 % and 4. 50% of total flux for early and late rice respectively.

Key words: methane    transport    rice plant    rice field
收稿日期: 1993-04-09 出版日期: 1993-09-01
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引用本文:

上官行健;王明星;陈德章;沈壬兴. 稻田CH4的传输[J]. 地球科学进展, 1993, 8(5): 13-22.

Shangguan Xingjian,Wang Mingxing,Chen Dezhang and Shen Renxing . THE TRANSPORT OF METHANE IN THE RICE PADDY FIELDS. Advances in Earth Science, 1993, 8(5): 13-22.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.1993.05.0013        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y1993/V8/I5/13

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[4]Holzapfel-Pschorn A. Conrad R and Seiler W.Effects of regetation on the emission of methane by submerged paddy soil .Plant and Soil, 1986, 92 :223-233 .

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