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地球科学进展  2020, Vol. 35 Issue (4): 389-403    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2020.038
构造地貌学专栏     
冲积扇形态与沉积特征及其动力学控制因素:进展与展望
武登云1(),任治坤1(),吕红华2,刘金瑞1,哈广浩1,张弛1,朱孟浩1
1.中国地震局地质研究所 活动构造与火山实验室,北京 100029
2.华东师范大学 地理科学学院,上海 200241
Morphology and Dynamics of Alluvial Fan and Its Research Prospects
Dengyun Wu1(),Zhikun Ren1(),Lü Honghua2,Jinrui Liu1,Guanghao Ha1,Chi Zhang1,Menghao Zhu1
1.Key Laboratory of Active Tectonics and Volcanos, Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100029, China
2.School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
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摘要:

冲积扇作为区域环境演变的敏感记录器,日益受到学界关注。通过文献调研,对冲积扇形态特征和动力学控制因素进行了总结梳理。首先对比分析了不同类型冲积扇的沉积学和地貌学特征。进而分别阐明了上游流域基岩岩性、构造运动和气候变化对冲积扇的形态、规模和沉积层序的影响。最后介绍了有助于冲积扇精细化研究的一系列新技术和新方法的应用以及未来研究的发展方向。主要提出重力流和牵引流沉积过程分别塑造碎屑流型和河控型冲积扇两类,并表明冲积扇是多种因素相互控制下的产物:流域基岩性质影响下游冲积扇规模和沉积物组成;构造活动提供山前沉积空间,影响冲积扇形态特征;气候变化决定着第四纪冲积扇沉积层序发育,特别是引发洪水事件的极端气象事件。进一步指出未来需要采用新的手段深入解读冲积扇所蕴含的环境信息。

关键词: 碎屑流型冲积扇河控型冲积扇岩性构造活动气候变化    
Abstract:

Alluvial fans can preserve historical records of sediment transport to middle and lower river systems or piedmont basins, which are considered to be sensitive recorders of climate change and tectonic activity. In this paper, the morphological characteristics, control factors and future development trend of alluvial fan are summarized and described. The main understanding is as follows: According to the gravity flow and traction flow process, fan can be divided into debris flow alluvial fan and fluvial fan. The former is formed under the action of debris gravity flow deposits, which is related to the occasional flood and burst flow in a short time. The latter is braided tributaries depositions which are gradually shallower and spread radially in the direction of fan toe under the traction water transport. The erodibility of underlying bedrock can affect the scale of downstream alluvial fan, which depends on the sediment production and store factors in the catchment. The easily eroded bedrock may produce more sediment, making the alluvial fan area larger. In the contrast, the erodibility of rocks in the source area can also affect the slope and hydrological characteristics of the valley so that more sediment is deposited in the upstream basin and the alluvial fan formed in the downstream is smaller. Tectonic activity is the pre-condition for the development of alluvial fans, which provides a space for alluvial fans depositions. Faulting in the piedmont can change the position and morphology of the ancient alluvial fan, and also cause deformation or distortion of the thick sedimentary sequence to record the regional tectonic activity. The quaternary alluvial fan sequence corresponds well to the climate change during the glacial-interglacial period. However, the influence of the flood events caused by extreme meteorological events on alluvial fan deposition should be focused on. The application of a series of new techniques and methods will help to carry out deep research on alluvial fan in the future, such as high-resolution observation technique, physical simulation experiment, and precise dating.

Key words: Alluvial fan    Fluvial fan    Bedrock lithology    Tectonic activity    Climate change
收稿日期: 2020-01-28 出版日期: 2020-05-08
ZTFLH:  P512.2  
基金资助: 中国地震局地质研究所中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务专项“青藏高原东北缘鄂拉山与日月山断裂的构造意义”(IGCEA1803);第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究专题“碰撞以来古地理格局与构造地貌过程”(2019QZKK0704)
通信作者: 任治坤     E-mail: rzk@ies.ac.cn
作者简介: 武登云(1994-),男,安徽定远人,博士研究生,主要从事构造地貌与活动构造研究. E-mail:wdyecnu@163.com
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引用本文:

武登云, 任治坤, 吕红华, 刘金瑞, 哈广浩, 张弛, 朱孟浩. 冲积扇形态与沉积特征及其动力学控制因素:进展与展望[J]. 地球科学进展, 2020, 35(4): 389-403.

Dengyun Wu, Zhikun Ren, Lü Honghua, Jinrui Liu, Guanghao Ha, Chi Zhang, Menghao Zhu. Morphology and Dynamics of Alluvial Fan and Its Research Prospects. Advances in Earth Science, 2020, 35(4): 389-403.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2020.038        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2020/V35/I4/389

图1  两种类型的冲积扇地貌学和沉积学特征对比(据参考文献[18,19,43]修改)
图2  碎屑流型冲积扇和河控型冲积扇纵剖面概念图(据参考文献[18]修改)(a)由碎屑重力流形成的扇体,扇面坡度较陡,沉积物分选差,多含粒级较粗的砾石,夹杂砂质透镜体;(b)由高含沙重力流形成的扇体,沉积构造和结构主要由中度分选的砂质、砂砾质透镜体和薄片组成,伴生少量砾石层;(c)由牵引水流形成的河控型扇体,扇面坡度较低,沉积物分选较好,沉积层序相对简单,几乎全部由砂砾层和砂层组成,夹有古土壤和湖泊沉积;从扇顶至扇缘,不同位置的横剖面(编号:1,2,3)显示了河控型冲积扇的沉积结构
图3  流域基岩易蚀性与冲积扇规模的关系(据参考文献[68]修改)
图4  山前沿正断层发育的典型冲积扇(据参考文献[75]修改)山内流域位于断层下盘,冲积扇在断层上盘向山前轴向河进积
图5  构造挤压作用对山前冲积扇发育的影响(据参考文献[79]修改)盆地冲积扇构造体系记录了流域的构造隆起与地层褶皱之间的关系;地层楔入前生长地层表明构造抬升是同沉积过程,冲积扇的沉积过程记录了其褶皱变形作用
图6  希腊Spartan山麓气候变化与冲积扇分期的关系(据参考文献[76]修改)
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