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地球科学进展  2020, Vol. 35 Issue (1): 38-51    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2020.004
综述与评述     
高山树线的调查与研究方法
王亚锋1(),芦晓明2,朱海峰2,3,梁尔源2,3
1.南京林业大学生物与环境学院生态学系,江苏 南京 210037
2.中国科学院青藏高原研究所,高寒 生态重点实验室,北京 100101
3.中国科学院青藏高原地球科学卓越创新中心, 北京 100101
Field Survey and Research Approaches at Apine Treelines
Yafeng Wang1(),Xiaoming Lu2,Haifeng Zhu2,3,Eryuan Liang2,3
1.Department of Ecology, College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
2.Key Laboratory of Alpine Ecology, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
3.CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
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摘要:

树线作为直立树木分布的海拔或纬度上限,被视为指示气候变化的敏感生态指标,在全球变化生态学研究中备受关注。过去10年来,树线研究快速发展,然而,不同研究采用的调查与研究方法差异较大,不利于从全球或区域尺度上评估山地森林对气候变化的响应与反馈。因此,有必要梳理不同的树线调查与研究方法,总结各方法的特点,进而提出当前亟待关注的前沿问题。目前,树线的调查与研究方法主要包括:历史照片比较、遥感影像分析、样线法、样圆法、样方法、空间点格局模型、树线动态模型、控制与移植实验等。历史照片比较和遥感影像分析虽然能够提供直观的参考,但用于推断树线动态仍存在不确定性。与样线法、样圆法和小方样法等选择性采样法相比,包含当前林线与树线的全样本采样法能得到更准确的树线位置与结构信息。空间点格局模型可建立树线格局与过程联系;树线动态模型可揭示树线变化格局及其驱动机制;控制与移植实验在探索树线变化的关键驱动因子方面具有优势。在今后的研究中,建议使用全样本采样法以便规范开展树线结构与格局变化研究;设置树线固定大样地并定期监测;在区域尺度上开展树线的控制与移植实验;尝试开发移植性强的树线动态模型。

关键词: 树线树轮生态学全样本采样法空间格局气候变化    
Abstract:

A tree line, as the altitudinal or latitudinal limit of erect trees, is considered as a sensitive ecological indicator of climate change, and becomes one of the hot issues in the studies of global change ecology. During the last decade, rapid progress has been made in tree line studies. However, field survey and research methods may vary significantly among tree line literatures, limiting the evaluation of mountainous forest response and feedback to climate change at regional or global scale. Herein, we reviewed the research progress regarding the field survey and research methods on tree lines, evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of each method, and pointed out the current research frontiers. Field survey and research methods in tree line literatures mainly include: Repeat landscape photography, remote sensing image analysis, land line transect method, circular sampling plot, rectangular or square sampling plot, spatial point pattern analysis, tree line dynamic model, controlled experiment, and transplant experiment. Repeat landscape photography and remote sensing image analysis can provide an intuitive reference for treeline dyanmics, but some uncertainties remain. Compared with selective sampling approach (e.g., line transect method, circular sampling plot and square small plot), sample-total method (rectangular large plots including the whole tree line ecotone, i.e., encompassing the current timberline and the tree line) provides more robust results regarding tree line structure and shifts. Spatial point pattern analysis has been used to establish the linkage between the ecological patterns and processes of the tree line ecotone. Tree line dynamic models can be used to reveal temporal patterns of position and structure of tree line ecotones and their driving mechanisms. Controlled or transplant experiment has advantages in exploring the critical drivers of tree line dynamics. In future studies, sample-total method and its protocol are recommended when exploring variations in structure and position of tree lines; regular monitoring of fixed large tree line plot is worth carrying out; controlled or transplant experiment can be set up at diverse tree lines across a regional scale; researchers should attempt to develop new tree line dynamic models with good transplantation capability.

Key words: Treeline    Dendroecology    Sample-total method    Spatial pattern    Climate change
收稿日期: 2019-10-14 出版日期: 2020-02-27
ZTFLH:  P935.1  
基金资助: 中国科学院A类战略性先导科技专项“泛第三极环境变化与绿色丝绸之路建设”(XDA20050101);国家自然科学基金杰出青年科学基金项目“树轮生态学与气候学”(41525001)
作者简介: 通信作者:王亚锋(1981-),男,河南汝州人,副教授,主要从事树轮生态学研究. E-mail:wangyf@njfu.edu.cn
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王亚锋,芦晓明,朱海峰,梁尔源. 高山树线的调查与研究方法[J]. 地球科学进展, 2020, 35(1): 38-51.

Yafeng Wang,Xiaoming Lu,Haifeng Zhu,Eryuan Liang. Field Survey and Research Approaches at Apine Treelines. Advances in Earth Science, 2020, 35(1): 38-51.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2020.004        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2020/V35/I1/38

图1  树线过渡带示意图
方法应用条件操作要求优势
历史照片比较有重复拍照记录的树线样点熟悉影像分析技术直观展示树线变化
遥感影像分析1980年以来;且树线爬升显著的高纬地区熟悉GIS与RS技术反演全球或区域树线变化
样线法地形崎岖,植被易观测,植被分布均一设置一条或多条样线,在样线两侧大于等于1 m范围内随机调查调查人员少,速度快,成本低
样圆法植被分布均一,林分密度小,易穿行圆半径一般小于20 m,对植被随机调查调查人员少,成本低
小样方法地形相对平整样地只包含当前树线;样地内随机取样或逐米调查调查成本较低
大样方法地形相对平整样地包含当前树线和林线,样地内全样本取样重建百年尺度上树线结构与格局信息,结果可靠;能区分不同驱动因子相对贡献
生态模型基于已有野外资料,设定生态参数有编程基础,或熟悉可视化软件运行分析植被空间格局,揭示生态过程的特征与变化
控制实验基于已有野外资料或模型结果,确定关键生态因子与过程掌握控制实验的设置与运行监测关键因子变化对生态过程影响
移植实验研究区树线变化与更新过程关系密切播种萌发后移植,或野外采集幼苗后移植探讨关键生态因子与更新动态间关系
表1  树线调查与研究方法的优缺点
图2  树线野外调查方法示意图(a)样线法;(b)样圆法;(c)~(e)样方法
图3  全样本采样法在藏东南急尖长苞冷杉树线调查中的使用
图4  基于Programita软件的空间点格局分析[28]
图5  基于Netlogo语言的树线动态模型[65]
图6  海拔梯度上幼苗移植实验与空间替代时间的方法
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