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地球科学进展  2019, Vol. 34 Issue (9): 984-997    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.09.0984
城镇化研究     
城镇化对气候变化影响的研究进展
罗鑫玥1,2(),陈明星1,2()
1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
2. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
Research Progress on the Impact of Urbanization on Climate Change
Xinyue Luo1,2(),Mingxing Chen1,2()
1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2. School of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
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摘要:

全球范围内正经历显著的城镇化过程,近些年来发展中国家城镇化尤为迅速。城镇化过程带来城市大发展和人口大规模集聚,生产生活方式改变,温室气体和污染排放等变化。随着全球城镇化进程不断推进,其对气候变化的影响不断增强和显著。主要从城镇化对气候变化的影响和城镇化对气候变化影响的机理两方面对相关研究进行回顾总结。城镇化引起区域增温和城市热岛效应,高温热浪、强降水等极端天气发生频率增大,还导致城市洪水风险增加。城镇化进程中污染物排放的增加是空气质量恶化的主要原因,城镇化还通过改变城市气象对空气质量产生间接影响。城镇化对相对湿度、风速、日照、云量等气候要素具有重要影响。城镇化对气候变化的影响主要通过下垫面改变、温室气体与污染排放、人为热排放与城市高热容量3个方面实现。城镇化不仅直接作用于区域/局地气候,而且通过促进全球气候变化间接作用于区域/局地气候,因此城镇化对气候变化的影响具有全球和区域的多尺度叠加效应。

关键词: 城镇化气候变化影响机理    
Abstract:

The world has been undergoing a remarkable process of urbanization, especially in developing countries in recent years. The urbanization process has brought about great urban development and large population agglomeration, changes in production and lifestyle, and man-made disturbances such as greenhouse gas and pollution emissions. As the global urbanization process continues to advance, its impact on climate change continues to strengthen significantly. This paper mainly reviewed and summarized relevant researches from two aspects: the influence of urbanization on climate change and the mechanism of influence of urbanization on climate change. Urbanization causes regional warming and urban heat island effect, extreme events such as high temperature, heat wave and heavy rainfall increase in frequency, and also leads to increased urban flood risk. The increase of pollutant emission in the process of urbanization is the main cause of air quality deterioration. Urbanization also has an indirect impact on air quality by changing urban climate. Urbanization has an important impact on climatic factors such as relative humidity, wind speed, sunshine and cloud cover. The impacts of urbanization on climate change are mainly realized through underlying surface changes, greenhouse gas and pollution emissions, anthropogenic heat emissions and urban high heat capacity. Urbanization not only directly affects the regional/local climate, but also indirectly affects the regional/local climate by promoting global climate change. Therefore, the impact of urbanization on climate change has a global and regional multi-scale superposition effect.

Key words: Urbanization    Climate change    Impact    Mechanism.
收稿日期: 2019-07-22 出版日期: 2019-11-15
ZTFLH:  P467  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目“交叉科学方向城镇化领域发展战略”(41842058);中国科学院基础前沿科学研究计划从0到1原始创新项目“全球城镇化对气候变化影响的检测归因与地理分异机制”(ZDBS-LY-DQC005)
通信作者: 陈明星     E-mail: luoxy.18s@igsnrr.ac.cn;chenmx@igsnrr.ac.cn
作者简介: 罗鑫玥(1997-),女,贵州遵义人,硕士研究生,主要从事城镇化与区域发展研究. E-mail:luoxy.18s@igsnrr.ac.cn
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罗鑫玥,陈明星. 城镇化对气候变化影响的研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2019, 34(9): 984-997.

Xinyue Luo,Mingxing Chen. Research Progress on the Impact of Urbanization on Climate Change. Advances in Earth Science, 2019, 34(9): 984-997.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.09.0984        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2019/V34/I9/984

图1   Web of Science中标题为“urbanization”和“climate”的文献发表情况(数据截止至2019年6月)
图2  城镇化对气候变化影响的机理
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