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地球科学进展  2019, Vol. 34 Issue (8): 826-841    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.08.0826
综述与评述     
全球干旱区分布特征及成因机制研究进展
闫昕旸1,2,3(),张强2,3(),闫晓敏1(),王胜2,任雪塬2,3,赵福年2
1. 甘肃省气象服务中心,甘肃 兰州 730020
2. 中国气象局兰州干旱气象研究所/甘肃省干旱气候变化 与减灾重点实验室/中国气象局干旱气候变化与减灾重点开放实验室,甘肃 兰州 730020
3. 兰州大学 大气科学学院,甘肃 兰州 730000
An Overview of Distribution Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms in Global Arid Areas
Xinyang Yan1,2,3(),Qiang Zhang2,3(),Xiaomin Yan1(),Sheng Wang2,Xueyuan Ren2,3,Funian Zhao2
1. Meteorological Service Center of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730020, China
2. Institute of Arid Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Key Laboratory of Arid Climatic Change and Reducing Disaster of Gansu Province,Key Open Laboratory of Arid Climatic Change and Disaster Reduction of CMA, Lanzhou 730020, China
3. College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
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摘要:

干旱区生态环境极其脆弱,对气候响应极其敏感,继续开展该区域气候及其影响机制研究,对于更深入地认识干旱区气候成因,进而更好地做出干旱区气候预测具有重要的科学意义。从干旱区划分、干旱区气候成因及其变化等几个方面归纳和总结了近几十年来国内外部分研究进展:目前较准确的干旱区划分方法是干旱指数法,可将全球划分为八大干旱区;干旱区气候形成是多个因素共同影响的结果,共有Hadley环流、大地形、陆气相互作用、沙尘气溶胶、海气相互作用、全球变暖等六大类影响因素;各大干旱区干湿差异明显,北非、中蒙等干旱区干旱化趋势严重,而美国中西部干旱区呈湿润化趋势。目前仍存在一些亟待解决的科学问题:各干旱区对全球增温的响应差异性较大,干旱区气候预测既是重点又是难点;青藏高原隆升对中蒙旱区影响巨大,目前这方面的数值模式分辨率不够高,边界条件不够精确,需进一步完善;各干旱区气候成因及其不同干湿变化趋势的原因,目前没有公认的定论,尚不能定量区分各影响因素对干旱区气候演变过程中的相对贡献及其响应过程。

关键词: 干旱区划分干旱区气象成因干旱区气候变化    
Abstract:

The ecological environment in arid areas is extremely fragile and especially sensitive to climate response. Continuous research on the climate and its impact mechanism in the arid zones is of great scientific significance for deeper understanding of the cause of climatic formation and better prediction of climate in arid regions. Some research progresses in recent decades both at home and abroad have been overviewed, including the distribution of arid areas, the causes of arid area climatic formation and arid area climate change. Studies have shown that AI index is an effective criterion for dividing arid areas. There are 8 major arid areas in the world; climatic formation in arid areas is the result of multiple factors; there are 6 kinds of influencing factors, such as Hadley Cell, land-air interaction and so on; the unlikely trend between dry and wet is obvious in arid areas, and some regions are facing more severe drought trends such as North Africa and China-Mongolia, while others show a trend of wetting such as the Midwest of the United States. At present, there are still some scientific problems to be solved urgently:The response of various arid regions to global warming is quite different, and climate prediction in these zones is both important and difficult; the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has a tremendous impact on the arid area of China-Mongolia, but the models of this field are not perfect enough; there are no accepted conclusions about the causes of climatic formation in different arid regions and the causes of their different wet and dry trends. At present, it is still impossible to quantitatively distinguish the relative contributions of various influencing factors in the climate evolution of drylands and their response processes.

Key words: Arid area distribution    Arid area climate forming cause    Arid area climate change.
收稿日期: 2019-04-30 出版日期: 2019-10-11
ZTFLH:  P426.615  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目“我国典型夏季风影响过渡区陆—气相互作用及其对夏季风响应的研究”(41630426);“非降水性水分观测及其对陆面水分的贡献”(41875022)
通讯作者: 张强     E-mail: yxy.qx@qq.com;zhangqiang@cma.gov.cn
作者简介: 闫昕旸(1990-),男,甘肃民勤人,工程师,主要从事干旱气候研究. E-mail:yxy.qx@qq.com
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引用本文:

闫昕旸,张强,闫晓敏,王胜,任雪塬,赵福年. 全球干旱区分布特征及成因机制研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2019, 34(8): 826-841.

Xinyang Yan,Qiang Zhang,Xiaomin Yan,Sheng Wang,Xueyuan Ren,Funian Zhao. An Overview of Distribution Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms in Global Arid Areas. Advances in Earth Science, 2019, 34(8): 826-841.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.08.0826        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2019/V34/I8/826

图1  全球九大干旱半干旱区分布[15]
图2  全球干旱半干旱区分布图[16]
图3  沙尘气溶胶对干旱半干旱区气候的直接效应、间接效应、半直接效应[77]
干旱区 主要影响因素 次要影响因素
美国中西部 Hadley环流、大地形 海气相互作用和全球变暖
南美洲南部 大地形 海气相互作用和全球变暖
北非 Hadley环流、海气相互作用 陆气相互作用、沙尘气溶胶和全球变暖
非洲南部 Hadley环流、海气相互作用 全球变暖
西南亚 Hadley环流、陆气相互作用 海气相互作用、沙尘气溶胶和全球变暖
中亚 大地形 海气相互作用和全球变暖
中蒙 大地形 陆气相互作用、沙尘气溶胶、海气相互作用和全球变暖
澳大利亚 Hadley环流 海气相互作用和全球变暖
表1  八大旱区与六大类影响因素对应关系
北美 华北 北非 中亚
趋势 干旱阶段 1985—2001年 1961—1998年 1951—1984年 1964—1977年
1993—2003年
湿润阶段 1951—1984年 1951—1960年 1985—2010年 1951—1963年
2001—2010年 1999—2010年 1978—1992年
年代际振荡 干旱阶段 1951—1974年 1970—2010年 1969—2010年 1951—1958年
1969—1984年
湿润阶段 1975—2010年 1952—1969年 1951—1968年 1959—1968年
1985—2010年
表2   4个典型干旱半干旱区区域平均年降水量趋势及年代际干湿振荡的时间统计[137]
图4  在RCP4.5情况下23组CMIP3(a)、14组CMIP5(b)、40组CMIP5(c)模式模拟的2070—2099年相对于1970—1999年的降水量变化百分率[136]
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