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地球科学进展  2019, Vol. 34 Issue (2): 210-223    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.02.0210
    
干旱、半干旱区地下水可持续性研究评述
王思佳1,2,3,刘鹄1,2,*(),赵文智1,2,李中恺1,2,3
1. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院,中国生态系统研究网络临泽内陆河流域研究站, 甘肃 兰州 730000
2. 中国科学院内陆河流域生态水文重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000
3. 中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
Groundwater Sustainability in Arid and Semi-arid Environments: A Review2
Sijia Wang1,2,3,Hu Liu1,2,*(),Wenzhi Zhao1,2,Zhongkai Li1,2,3
1. Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Linze Inland River Basin Research Station, Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Lanzhou 730000, China
2. Key Laboratory of Ecohydrology of Inland River Basin, Lanzhou 730000, China
3. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
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摘要:

地下水是全球水文循环的重要组成部分,可持续利用地下水关系到区域生态安全与粮食安全,在干旱、半干旱区尤其如此。梳理了近30年来国内外关于干旱、半干旱环境地下水可持续性研究的重要成果,从地下水可持续性的概念、评价指标、影响因素、可持续管理和研究前沿等方面系统总结了干旱、半干旱区地下水可持续性研究进展,指出全球范围内干旱、半干旱区地下水在水量和水质方面都已表现出不同程度的不可持续特征,但已有的研究多关注地下水的数量特征而忽视了地下水质量,因此可能低估了地下水可持续性下降的严重性。未来研究中除了要进一步完善地下水可持续性理论框架、关注地下水资源在自然和社会间的平衡关系、明确人类干扰与气候变化对地下水可持续性的影响规律、加强地下水可持续性尤其是在跨界流域中的管理外,还要重视地下水可持续性分析模型开发、评估方法体系建设、地下水系统实时监测以及法律层面的可持续性管理研究。

关键词: 地下水可持续性生态安全粮食安全气候变化人类活动    
Abstract:

Groundwater is an important part of the global hydrological cycle. Sustainable utilization of groundwater is related to regional ecological security and food security, especially in arid and semi-arid environments. This paper reviewed the important achievements of the research on groundwater sustainability in arid and semi-arid environments during the past 30 years, and summarized the research progress in groundwater sustainability of arid and semi-arid environments from the conception evolution of groundwater sustainability, evaluation methods, influencing factors, sustainable management, and research frontiers. Our analysis suggests that groundwater in water limited environments around the world has shown unsustainable characteristics both in terms of quantity and quality. However, the existing research focuses more on the quantitative characteristics than the quality characteristics of groundwater, and thus the seriousness of the decline in groundwater sustainability is potentially underestimated. It is pointed out that more research efforts need to be done in the future in balancing the groundwater resources for human and nature, clarifying the impacts of human disturbance and climate change on groundwater sustainability, and strengthening groundwater sustainability through transboundary watershed management. We argued that the difficulty remains how to quantify the sustainable yield of a groundwater basin, and how to assess the groundwater sustainability. Further investigations are required in improving the theoretical framework of groundwater sustainability, modeling the impacts of the various alternative groundwater development scenarios, developing more flexible and efficient indicator frameworks for sustainability evaluation of groundwater system, and deploying more sophisticated groundwater monitoring network for real-time data acquisition. Finally, awareness should also be raised towards ground water sustainability both at the legal level and in the sphere of political action.

Key words: Groundwater sustainability    Ecological security    Food security    Climate change    Human activities.
收稿日期: 2018-09-03 出版日期: 2019-03-26
ZTFLH:  P641.8  
基金资助: 中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)“中亚—西亚地区荒漠化过程与驱动机制”(编号:XDA2003010102);国家自然科学基金重点项目“荒漠绿洲非饱和带土壤水分运移及对地下水补给作用”(编号:41630861)资助.
通讯作者: 刘鹄     E-mail: lhayz@lzb.ac.cn
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引用本文:

王思佳,刘鹄,赵文智,李中恺. 干旱、半干旱区地下水可持续性研究评述[J]. 地球科学进展, 2019, 34(2): 210-223.

Sijia Wang,Hu Liu,Wenzhi Zhao,Zhongkai Li. Groundwater Sustainability in Arid and Semi-arid Environments: A Review2. Advances in Earth Science, 2019, 34(2): 210-223.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.02.0210        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2019/V34/I2/210

图1  全球干旱/半干旱区[62]地下水可持续性
地区可持续性(↑可持续;↓不可持续)方法
东北地区西部吉林省西部[84]↓(数量)GRACE重力数据反演
西北地区塔里木盆地[41]↓(数量)

GRACE重力数据反演

RGS地下水总压力指数

塔里木河流域[77]↓(质量)

钠吸附率、钠百分比

地下水质指数

孔雀河上游[78]↓(数量和质量)同位素方法
敦煌盆地[79]↓(数量)MODFLOW模型
黑河流域[73]↓(数量)地统计方法
张掖盆地[80]↓(数量和质量)

MODFLOW模型

MT3DMS模型

民勤绿洲[72]↓(数量)数字地下水埋深模型
鄂尔多斯盆地[81]↓(数量)同位素方法
华北地区北部呼和浩特平原[63]↑(数量和质量)基于DPSIR框架的地下水评价指标
华北平原北部[82]↓(数量)MODFLOW模型
华北平原北部[83]↓(数量和质量)

MODFLOW模型

RT3D溶质运移模型

华北平原北部[60]↓(数量和质量)同位素方法
表1  我国境内干旱/半干旱区的地下水可持续性
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