地球科学进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (11): 1147 -1156. doi: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2017.11.1147

所属专题: 深海科学研究专刊

冰期出露的巽他陆架:古气候与古生态意义 上一篇    下一篇

末次冰期时暴露的巽他大陆架可能被热带稀树草原覆盖吗?
戴璐 1( )   
  1. 1.宁波大学地理与空间信息技术系, 浙江 宁波 315211
    2.School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia Penang 11960
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-06 修回日期:2017-10-27 出版日期:2017-11-10
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目“基于海洋孢粉与植硅体证据的末次冰期以来南海南部的古气候演变研究”(编号:41776063)资助

Was There Savanna Corridor on the Exposed Sunda Shelf During the Last Glacial Period?

Lu Dai 1( ), Swee Yeok Foong 2   

  1. 1.Ningbo University Department of Geography & Spacial Information Techniques,Zhejiang Ningbo 315211,China
    2.School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11960, Malaysia
  • Received:2017-09-06 Revised:2017-10-27 Online:2017-11-10 Published:2018-01-10
  • About author:

    First author:Dai Lu(1981-), male, Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province, Associate professor. Research areas include palynology and marine geology.E-mail:dailu2288@163.com

  • Supported by:
    Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China “Research of paleoclimatic evolution in the southern South China Sea since the last glacial period, based on the marine palynological and phytolith evidences”(No.41776063)

迄今为止,末次冰期低海平面时南海南部暴露的巽他大陆架被稀树草原或是热带雨林覆盖的问题仍然存有争议。来自于东南亚的孢粉证据表明,末次冰期时南海南部没有出现持续而广泛的草本花粉增多现象,主要的孢粉成分仍为低地雨林和山地雨林。草本花粉占主导的证据多出现在澳大利亚北部,这可能指示了草本植物以现代稀树草原分布区为中心进行扩张。据此,可以认为,尽管末次冰期气候有所变干,但南海南部周边陆地以及暴露的巽他大陆架上可能仍然被热带森林所覆盖。这一推断不仅得到了该区域植被—古气候模拟的支持,也与热带南美洲的很多孢粉证据相对应。通过当前孢粉证据的总结,发现东南亚古植被重建工作存有一些不足,例如海洋孢粉记录数量稀少,缺乏对海洋孢粉组合与内陆植被关系的了解。

To date, it is still heatedly debated that whether the exposed Sunda Shelf was covered by savanna or rainforest in the Last Glacial Period (LGP). A lot of palynological evidences revealed that large increase of non-arboreal pollen did not occurred on the southern South China Sea (SCS), and lowland and montane rainforest pollen were still predominant. Most of the herb-predominated pollen records occurred on the northern Australia, possibly indicating dispersions of herbs from current distribution centers. As a result, we advocated that inland and connected exposed Sunda Shelf around the southern SCS were covered by tropical forests rather than savanna during the LGP, although climate was drier then. This conclusion is not only supported by palaeoclimate-vegetation modeling, but also corresponds with most of the palynological evidences from South America. Current palynological records also showed the lack of palaeoenviromental reconstruction in Southeast Asia, including less pollen records and ambiguous correlations between marine pollen assemblage and its catchment vegetation.

中图分类号: 

图1 东南亚地区旱季平均日降水量(a)以及现代savanna分布及其典型气候(b) [ 9 ]
(a)曲线为日平均降水量等值线,单位为mm/d;浅灰色表示水深大于200 m的海域;(b)方框内图表代表温度和降水量,黑色阴影表示savanna分布
Fig.1 Average daily precipitation during dry seasons in East Asia (a) and modern savanna distribution and its typical climate (b) [ 9 ]
(a)Contour lines show average daily precipitation (mm/d);Shaded gray indicates the ocean at more than 200 m depth; (b) Diagrams in the box indicate temperature and precipitation, shaded black indicates the distribution of savanna
图2 末次盛冰期时南美和非洲热带地区的古植被重建 [ 16 ]
Fig.2 Palaeovegetation reconstruction in tropical South America and Africa [ 16 ]
图3 东南亚—澳大利亚北部地区的孢粉记录
图中孢粉记录分别是Nong Pa Kho [ 42 ],NTSH [ 43 ],Danau di-Atas [ 44 , 45 ],Nee soon [ 46 ],17964 [ 4 ],18302,18300,18323 [ 5 ],17962 [ 47 ],Niah [ 48 ],Kelabit(Ba钻孔) [ 49 ],MD06-3075 [ 50 ],Danau Sentarum(B钻孔) [ 51 ],Wanda [ 52 ],BAR94-42 [ 53 ],Rawa Danau [ 54 ],Bandung basin [ 55 ],G6-4 [ 56 ],SHI-9014 [ 57 ],MD97-2130 [ 58 ],lake Euramoo [ 59 ],ODP820 [ 60 ]
孢粉图侧面的数字为年代,单位:万年
Fig.3 Pollen records in Southeast Asia-north Australia regions
The numbers in the side of pollen diagram indicate ages, scale is 10 ka
图4 基于数据模拟的方法,在不同气候条件下亚洲savanna群落的分布概率
(a)现代非洲;(b)现代澳大利亚;(c)现代南美洲 [ 15 ];图中数字指示了不同savanna群落的位置,与之对应的景观图片请见参考文献[15]
Fig.4 Predicted distribution of savannahs in Asian based on the climate envelope
(a) Africa; (b) Australia; (c) South America [ 15 ];The numbers shown are known field locations of different Asian savannahs. Images corresponding to these numbers are shown in reference[15]
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