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地球科学进展  2021, Vol. 36 Issue (7): 740-752    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2021.072
青藏高原综合科学考察研究     
青藏高原水力侵蚀定量研究进展
魏梦美(),符素华,刘宝元()
北京师范大学地理科学学部,北京 100875
Quantitative Research of Water Erosion on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Mengmei WEI(),Suhua FU,Baoyuan LIU()
Faculty of Geographical Science,Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875,China
 全文: PDF(1039 KB)   RICH HTML
摘要:

青藏高原生态环境脆弱,土壤侵蚀是严重的生态问题。定量监测和评价水力侵蚀是生态建设和水土保持规划的基础。为系统掌握青藏高原水力侵蚀定量研究现状,在查阅大量文献资料的基础上,系统整理了81篇相关文献。发现青藏高原定量评价方法包括基于坡面侵蚀模型、137Cs核素示踪法、径流小区和水文站观测3种类型,但总的来说研究明显不够。坡面侵蚀模型主要有美国修正通用土壤流失方程和中国土壤流失方程2种。基于修正通用土壤流失方程、中国土壤流失方程、137Cs核素示踪法、径流小区监测和水文站观测小流域得到的青藏高原土壤侵蚀模数分别为大于30、1~8、小于10、0~109和2~3 t/(hm2?a)。经过分析发现,青藏高原土壤侵蚀定量研究存在4个方面的问题:模型计算中参数的选择存在问题,137Cs核素示踪法方面背景值不确定性太大,径流小区和小流域监测资料奇缺,没有全区评价结果。今后需要加强小区小流域自动化监测、137Cs背景值采样测试和综合评判以及137Cs核素示踪法土壤侵蚀测定。在这两项定量测定的基础上对全青藏高原土壤侵蚀进行定量评价,为水土保持规划和生态文明建设服务。

关键词: 青藏高原水力侵蚀修正通用土壤流失方程(RUSLE)中国土壤流失方程(CSLE)137Cs径流小区    
Abstract:

Soil erosion is a serious ecological problem on the fragile ecological environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Quantitative monitoring and evaluation of hydraulic erosion is the basis for ecological construction and soil and water conservation planning. In order to systematically grasp the current status of quantitative research on hydraulic erosion on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, 81 relevant papers were systematically collated on the basis of an extensive literature review. It was found that the quantitative evaluation methods on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau include three types based on slope erosion models, 137Cs nuclide tracing method, runoff plots and hydrological station observations, but in general the research is seriously and obviously insufficient. The two main types of slope erosion models are the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE). The soil loss of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is >30, 1~8, <10, 0~109, and 2~3 t/(hm2?a) based on the RUSLE model, CSLE model, 137Cs nuclide tracing method, runoff plots monitoring, and hydrological station observation of small watersheds, respectively. After analyzing the quantitative study of soil erosion on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we find that there are four problems: there are problems in the selection of parameters in the model calculation; the reference value of the 137Cs nuclide tracer method is too uncertain; the monitoring data of runoff plots and small watersheds is extremely lacking; no regional evaluation results. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the automated monitoring of small watersheds in the community, the 137Cs reference value sampling test and comprehensive evaluation, and the 137Cs nuclide tracer method for soil erosion determination. Based on these two quantitative determinations, the soil erosion of the entire Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is quantitatively evaluated, serving the planning of water and soil conservation and the construction of ecological civilization.

Key words: The Qinghai Tibet Plateau    Water erosion    RUSLE    CSLE    137Cs    Runoff plot
收稿日期: 2021-01-19 出版日期: 2021-08-20
ZTFLH:  P934  
基金资助: 第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目“土壤水蚀与土壤质量变化 ”(2019QZKK0306)
通信作者: 刘宝元     E-mail: 1164052581@qq.com;baoyuan@bnu.edu.cn
作者简介: 魏梦美(1997-),女,山东济宁人,硕士研究生,主要从事土壤侵蚀与水土保持研究. E-mail:1164052581@qq.com
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引用本文:

魏梦美,符素华,刘宝元. 青藏高原水力侵蚀定量研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2021, 36(7): 740-752.

Mengmei WEI,Suhua FU,Baoyuan LIU. Quantitative Research of Water Erosion on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Advances in Earth Science, 2021, 36(7): 740-752.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2021.072        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2021/V36/I7/740

图1  1992—2019年青藏高原土壤侵蚀/土地退化相关文献数量
计算方法研究区范围计算公式R值(年平均及范围)数据来源参考 文献
基于年降雨量简易算法青藏高原东北部石羊河上游公式(1)和(2)16石羊河上游峡门台水文气象站1985—2002年 年降水资料22
基于月降雨量简易算法西藏公式(5)7~223西藏气象站点观测资料23
格尔木至拉萨公式(6)1 294气象台1981年、2000年的降雨量实际观测数据24
青藏公路走廊公式(6)16~2 037http://www.data.ac.cn/zrzy/G03.asp25
青藏高原公式(6)三江源:386~9202001—2012年青藏高原106个气象台站的 每日实测数据26
西藏高原东部公式(7)299西藏自治区水文站提供昌都地区1985—2000年 降雨量27
基于日降雨量简易算法全国公式(8)青藏高原寒带:368~427全国约700个测站1971—1998年的逐日降雨资料16
青藏高原东南部雨林地区公式(8)1 600降雨卫星数据28
雅鲁藏布江公式(8)7581961—2015年日喀则、江孜、拉萨、泽当、当雄、 嘉黎、林芝和波密8个气象站数据29
西南山区公式(9)青藏高原亚寒带:635西南山区4省(市)及周边省份1960—2009年 129个气象站逐日降雨量资料19
西南山区公式(9)青藏高原温带:661西南山区4省(市)及周边省份1960—2009年 129个气象站逐日降雨量资料19
青海的诺木洪公式(9)54~1441960—2009年诺木洪气象站20
EI30沱沱河径流小区观测EI30计算336沱沱河气象站30
表1  青藏高原R因子研究成果
地区数据来源计算方法K平均值/[t?hm2?h/(hm2?MJ?mm)]参考文献
西藏西藏自治区土壤普查资料EPIC模型0.033~0.06633
青海湖流域青海省第二次土壤普查EPIC模型0.03634
格尔木—拉萨土壤地质图读表0.03624
青海湖1∶400万《青海土壤图》EPIC模型0.03735
全国中国1∶100万土壤数据EPIC模型西藏:0.035436
青藏高原地区青藏高原1 000多个典型土壤剖面资料EPIC模型0.03037
三江源1∶100万世界土壤数据集EPIC模型0.03426
青藏公路走廊1∶100万中国土壤图EPIC模型0.130~0.83025
青藏高原北部1980年前后全国开展的第二次土壤普查成果数据和 土壤剖面样点数据4 457个随机森林0.030~0.03828
雅鲁藏布江中下游 干热河谷2017年9月人工采样EPIC模型0.02438
表2  青藏高原K因子研究成果
研究区数据源空间分辨率/m计算公式LS的平均值参考文献
三江源1 000公式(11)~(13)4.1426
青藏公路走廊带15和30公式(11)~(13)小于5的累积面积为46%25
西藏90公式(11)、(13)和(14)11.8336
青海湖90公式(15)最大为12.2635
表3  青藏高原LS因子研究成果
土壤侵蚀模型研究区研究时间各因子计算方法与来源年均土壤侵蚀模数/[t/(hm2?a)]参考 文献
RKLSCP
BET
CSLE昌都县2011年公式(8)EPIC模型公式(11)、(13)和(14)水域、居民地、裸岩0,坡地0.31,林地0.005~0.050,草地0.010~0.050水平梯地0.25顺坡耕作17.8950
西藏扎叶巴小流域2012—2016年公式(8)EPIC模型公式(11)、(13)和(14)坡耕地0.47,水域0,林地0.004~1, 草地0.090~0.040按坡度赋值1.0651
RUSLE大通县1995年公式(3)和(4)高山石质土0.0528,草甸土0.0338,山地棕褐土0.0694,黑钙土0.0225公式(11)、(13)和(14)水浇地0.1,旱地0.31,有林地、灌木林地0.006,水域0,居民建设用地0.22,高、中、低覆盖度草地0.008、0.01、0.2水浇地0.15,旱地0.6,有林地、灌木林地1,水域0,居民建设用地1,高、中、低覆盖度草地0.4、1、168.5552
大通县2005年公式(3)和(4)公式(11)、(13)和(14)51.8352
青藏高原境内澜沧江上游2010年公式(6)EPIC模型公式(11)、(13)和(14)公式(17)森林1,草地1,水田0.15,旱地0.4,居民点和 建设用地0,湿地0,裸岩、沙漠0,裸地1114.9853
青藏工程走廊带2015年公式(6)EPIC模型公式(11)和(12)公式(17)林地0.7,水域和建设用地0,草地和沙地1, 裸露岩石0,耕地0.1~0.887.4725
三江源2001—2012年公式(6)EPIC模型公式(11)和(12 )公式(17)189.4626
三江源2001—2012年公式(6)EPIC模型公式(11)和(12)公式(17)185.4554
三江源1986—2000年公式(6)EPIC模型公式(11)和(12)公式(17)10.1848
三江源2001—2005年公式(6)EPIC模型公式(11)和(12)公式(17)10.2248
三江源1997—2004年公式(6)EPIC模型公式(11)、(13)和(14)公式(17)林地和草地1,水土和沼泽0,居民地和 建设用地0,旱地0.4,沙地和盐碱地18.2655
三江源2005—2012年公式(6)EPIC模型公式(11)、(13)和(14)公式(17)8.8255
青藏高原1980—2009年公式(10)EPIC模型公式(11)和(12)有林地0.04,高、中、低覆盖度草地0.05、0.05、0.15,城镇、农村用地0.2,沼泽地、裸岩石砾地1130.0121
青藏高原2002—2016年公式(8)EPIC模型公式(13)稻田0.1,干农田0.22,茂盛、灌木、稀疏、其他林地0.001、0.01、0.01、0.2、高、中低覆盖率草原0.12,0.18,0.32,沙地、戈壁沙漠、盐碱地、裸露土壤、沼泽0.05稻田0.01,干农田0.4,其他林地0.7,茂盛、灌木、稀疏、高、中低覆盖率草原沙地、戈壁沙漠、盐碱地、裸露的土壤、其他未利用土地均为12.7656
表4  青藏高原基于坡面模型的土壤侵蚀评价
研究区经纬度

背景值/

(Bq/m2

土壤侵蚀模数 计算公式年均土壤侵蚀模数/[t/(hm2?a)]土地利用/ 植被类型坡度/°盖度/%参考文献
西藏日喀则29°28′13.8″N, 88°82′29.2″E831-13.15林草地152864
青海省达日县垮热洼尔玛流域33°N,99°E3 795公式(18)7.16高寒灌丛草甸-50~9560
青海省达日县33°N,99°E2 468公式(20)16.50高寒草甸和 高山草原59065
青海省玛沁县军功镇34°39′42.2″N,100°37′22.9″E1 623~1 689非农耕地的扩散迁移模型:Mass Balance Model II的改进形式8.00(净侵蚀 速率)高山草甸--66
青海省达日县纳通河流域33°N,99°E3 795公式(18)15.98高寒灌丛草甸-10~8567
青海省玉树市玛龙村

32°58′25.3″N,

96°19′01.1″E

2 130公式(19)4.64高寒草甸6.283.8861
青海省称多县珍秦乡33°24′26.8″N, 97°20′25.4″E1 969公式(19)8.75高寒草甸6.87061
青海省祁连县野牛沟乡34°27′51.98″N,97°58′09.4″E2 538公式(19)4.15高寒草甸11.48861
青海省玉树市玛龙村32°58′25.3″N, 96°19′01.1″E-公式(19)4.64高寒草甸6>8562
青海省玉树市玛龙村32°57′40.1″N, 96°11′21.5″E-公式(19)8.30高寒草甸108062
国道G214和果洛藏族自治州东北部的大武河流域-2 229公式(19)65.00---26
青藏公路走廊带29~31°N,90~91°E1 576公式(19)0.67耕地< 5-25
青藏公路走廊带29~31°N,90~91°E1 576公式(19)0.34高寒草甸< 5-25
三江源-2 000--高寒灌丛草甸--68
共和盆地-1 982--草原和草原化荒漠--69
兴海盆地-1 672和1 210--高寒草甸和 山地草原--69

青藏高原东北部214国道

左侧2 km处

-1 188-0.54高山草甸<4>8070
青海省格尔木市沱沱河34°12′05.2″N, 92°26′49.9″E317~588公式(20)10.00高寒草原--63
青海省玛多县34°58′14.6″N, 98°06′76.9″E-公式(20)-1.70高山草甸--63
青海省玛沁县东倾沟乡34°29′14.3″N, 99°57′23.5″E968~1 245公式(20)-14.20高山草甸--63
青海省玛沁县军牧场34°20′46.8″N,100°27′58.3″E1 379~2 049公式(20)0.30高山草甸--63
青海省玛沁县军功镇34°39′42.2″N,100°37′22.9″E1 623~1 689公式(20)99.00高山草甸--63
表5  基于137Cs的青藏高原土壤水蚀测量结果
研究区小区个数与类型长×宽/(m×m)坡度/°资料来源及观测时间土壤侵蚀模数/(t/hm2参考文献
青藏高原沱沱河以南约25 km2个裸露坡面4×2302003年9月2日至2004年9月6日108.9171
青藏公路青海省平阿路段桩号为K34+055的青沙山隧道南口种植披碱草、老芒麦、 沙棘的小区15×448径流小区附近气象站的9次观测数据77.8972
种植青稞、油菜的小区15×44875.78
种植披碱草、老芒麦的小区15×4428.80
青藏高原纳帕海流域盖度2%的裸露坡面1×182012年8月9日至9月18日,2013年6月15日至7月30日,共21次降雨事件2.3073
盖度18%的1年再生长小区1×120.60
盖度56%的3年再生长小区1×170.15
盖度85%的松树林地小区1×150.10
盖度92%的草地小区1×150.03
表6  青藏高原基于小区的测量结果
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