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地球科学进展  2018, Vol. 33 Issue (3): 248-256    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.03.0248
    
青藏铁路沿线天然场地多年冻土变化
孙志忠(), 马巍, 穆彦虎, 刘永智, 张淑娟, 王宏磊
中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院冻土工程国家重点实验室,甘肃 兰州 730000
Permafrost Change Under Natural Sites Along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway During the Years of 2006-2015
Zhizhong Sun(), Wei Ma, Yanhu Mu, Yongzhi Liu, Shujuan Zhang, Honglei Wang
State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soils Engineering,Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou 730000,China
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摘要:

基于青藏铁路沿线30个天然场地2006—2015年地温观测资料,对多年冻土天然上限(以下称冻土上限)及其变化、不同深度冻土地温及其变化进行分析,研究了近期多年冻土时空变化特征。观测结果表明,冻土上限为0.88~9.14 m,平均为3.54 m。在冻土上限下降的场地中,冻土上限下降幅度为0.05~2.22 m,平均为0.51 m;冻土上限下降速率为0.01~0.25 m/a,平均为0.07 m/a。高温冻土区冻土上限下降幅度与下降速率分别大于低温冻土区的0.47 m与0.06 m/a。总体而言,冻土上限附近和15 m深度地温呈上升趋势。其中,冻土上限附近地温升温幅度为0.01~0.60 ℃,平均为0.16 ℃;冻土上限附近地温升温速率为0.001~0.067 ℃/a,平均为0.018 ℃/a。低温冻土区上限附近地温升温幅度与升温速率分别大于高温冻土区0.12 ℃和0.014 ℃/a。15 m深度地温升温幅度为0.01 ~0.48 ℃,平均为0.10 ℃,15 m深度地温升温速率为0.002~0.054 ℃/a,平均为0.011 ℃/a。低温冻土区15 m深度地温升温幅度和升温速率分别大于高温冻土区0.11 ℃和0.012 ℃/a。个别观测场地受局地因素影响,出现了冻土上限抬升和冻土地温下降的情形。

关键词: 多年冻土冻土上限地温冻土变化    
Abstract:

Permafrost changes under natural sites along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway were investigated based on the ground temperature monitored from the year of 2006 to 2015. Among these sites, mean permafrost table was 3.54 m, with a range of 0.88 to 9.14 m. Among the sites with decreasing permafrost table, mean decreasing amplitude of permafrost table was 0.51 m, with a range of 0.05 to 2.22 m; mean decreasing rate of permafrost table was 0.07 m/a, with a range of 0.01 to 0.25 m/a. Decreasing amplitude and decreasing rate of permafrost table in high temperature regions were 0.47 m and 0.06 m/a greater than those in low temperature regions, respectively. In general, ground temperatures at permafrost table and 15 m depth presented rising tendency. Mean rising amplitude of ground temperature at permafrost table was 0.16 ℃, with a range of 0.01 to 0.60 ℃; mean rising rate of ground temperature at permafrost table was 0.018 ℃/a, with a range of 0.001 to 0.067 ℃/a. Rising amplitude and rising rate of ground temperature at permafrost table in low temperature regions were 0.12 ℃ and 0.014 ℃/a greater than those in high temperature regions, respectively. Mean rising amplitude of ground temperature at 15 m depth was 0.10 ℃, with a range of 0.01 to 0.48 ℃; mean rising rate of ground temperature at 15 m depth was 0.011 ℃/a, with a range of 0.002 to 0.054 ℃/a. Rising amplitude and rising rate of ground temperature at 15 m depth in low temperature regions were 0.11 ℃ and 0.012 ℃/a greater than those in high temperature regions, respectively. Due to the effect of local factors, increasing of permafrost table and decreasing of ground temperature were observed under several sites.

Key words: Permafrost    Permafrost table    Ground temperature    Permafrost change.
收稿日期: 2017-12-11 出版日期: 2018-05-02
ZTFLH:  P642.14  
基金资助: *国家自然科学基金面上项目“青藏高原多年冻土区路基下融化夹层水热过程观测与模拟研究”(编号:41571064);国家自然科学基金重点项目“青藏高速公路修筑对冻土工程走廊的热影响及环境效应”(编号:41630636)资助.
作者简介:

作者简介:孙志忠(1974-),男,辽宁清原人,副研究员,主要从事寒区环境与冻土工程研究.E-mail:sun@lzb.ac.cn

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引用本文:

孙志忠, 马巍, 穆彦虎, 刘永智, 张淑娟, 王宏磊. 青藏铁路沿线天然场地多年冻土变化[J]. 地球科学进展, 2018, 33(3): 248-256.

Zhizhong Sun, Wei Ma, Yanhu Mu, Yongzhi Liu, Shujuan Zhang, Honglei Wang. Permafrost Change Under Natural Sites Along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway During the Years of 2006-2015. Advances in Earth Science, 2018, 33(3): 248-256.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.03.0248        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V33/I3/248

编号 地名 经度(E) 纬度(N) 高程/m 孔深/m 冻土特征
冻土
类型
年平均
地温/℃
冻土
上限/m
P2 昆仑山 94°03.081' 35°37.020' 4 757 18 D -3.17 1.9
P3 不冻泉 93°57.795' 35°33.109' 4 636 18 D -0.50 2.5
P4 斜水河南 93°43.561' 35°30.132' 4 547 18 F,D -0.75 1.0
P6 高平原区 93°26.776' 35°21.839' 4 507 40 D,B,F -1.50 2.9
P7 高平原区 93°26.678' 35°21.819' 4 504 18 D,B -1.14 3.2
P8 楚玛尔河南 93°13.308' 35°16.648' 4 589 18 S,D -0.50 5.0
P10 五道梁盆地 93°06.678' 35°12.258' 4 613 15 D,B,H -1.70 1.8
P12 可可西里 93°02.521' 35°08.303' 4 734 40 D,F,H -2.40 0.9
P15 红梁河北 93°01.694' 35°04.066' 4 675 18 D,F,H -1.28 2.3
P16 风火山南坡 92°53.914' 34°40.346' 4 894 20 F,B,D -2.00 1.7
P17 二道沟 92°46.939' 34°36.625' 4 715 18 B,D -0.65 4.0
P18 雅玛尔河 92°44.608' 34°34.532' 4 654 18 F,D -0.50 3.3
P19 雅玛尔河 92°43.841' 34°31.697' 4 616 18 D -0.24 6.2
P20 乌丽盆地 92°43.568' 34°28.667' 4 587 16 F -0.50 3.1
P22 乌丽盆地 92°43.568' 34°28.645' 4 587 16 F -0.54 5.2
P25 开心岭 92°20.386' 34°00.675' 4 672 18 H,F,D -0.74 2.4
P27 开心岭 92°20.384' 33°57.347' 4 622 40 F,H -0.80 2.9
P29 开心岭 92°20.369' 33°55.842' 4 622 20 F -0.80 3.4
P30 布曲河阶地 92°14.064' 33°46.399' 4 640 40 B,D -0.46 2.7
P31 布曲河阶地 92°12.272' 33°45.699' 4 647 18 D,F -0.05 8.0
P32 100道班洼地 91°56.334' 33°28.094' 4 778 18 D -0.12 4.8
P33 老温泉南部 91°56.752' 33°23.874' 4 817 18 F,D -0.40 3.4
P34 七里河北侧 91°52.547' 33°18.325' 4 841 18 F 0.27 5.0
P35 唐古拉北坡 91°48.292' 33°05.315' 4 948 18 B,F,D 0 4.5
P36 唐古拉北坡 91°45.164' 33°04.292' 4 974 15 B,F -0.90 2.8
P37 唐古拉山口 91°39.796' 33°00.644' 5 080 15 B,F -1.80 2.4
P41 日阿纳藏布 91°32.040' 32°30.465' 4 868 20 F,B -0.27 5.0
P42 安多谷地 91°36.849' 32°24.164' 4 897 16 F -0.22 3.4
P43 安多谷地 91°37.222' 32°23.687' 4 887 18 H,F,D -0.20 3.5
P44 安多谷地 91°34.884' 32°18.565' 4 807 15 B,F -0.12 2.4
表1  青藏铁路沿线天然场地基本信息
图1  观测场地多年冻土上限深度
图2  监测场地多年冻土上限变化
图3  观测场地冻土上限附近地温
图4  观测场地冻土上限附近地温变化
图5  观测场地15 m深度地温
图6  观测场地15 m深度地温变化
图7  冻土退化严重场地地温随深度变化(2013年4月15日)
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