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地球科学进展  2018, Vol. 33 Issue (3): 257-269    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.03.0257
研究论文     
基于航磁数据的三维地质建模研究
侯征1(), 王天意1, 于长春2, 熊盛青2, 邸龙1
1. 河北地质大学勘查技术与工程学院,河北 石家庄 050031
2.中国国土资源航空物探遥感中心,北京 100083
Study of 3D Geological Modeling Based on Aeromagnetic Data
Zheng Hou1(), Tianyi Wang1, Changchun Yu2, Shengqing Xiong2, Long Di1
1.School of Exploration Technology and Engineering, Hebei GEO University, Shijiazhuang 050031, China
2.China Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing Center for Land and Resources, Beijing 100083, China
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摘要:

随着浅地表矿床发现的难度增大,资源勘查深度增加,三维建模技术在深部找矿中作用更加突出。三维地质模型的精确程度直接决定了对地质背景及成矿条件的认知程度,为此提出了一套基于航磁资料处理与三维可视化相结合的三维地质建模技术。对研究区选取适当剖面进行二维反演,获得各剖面地质模型。通过剖面相连法构建各地质单元的三维地质模型后,引入起伏地形三维块体磁场正演技术,对构建的三维初始模型正演计算,从而获取全区三维地质模型及各地质单元的航磁异常理论响应。与实测结果对比分析后,合理添加地质约束条件,重新修正模型,使得构建的模型最大程度接近实际情况,这样模型既能很好地反映地质信息,又能满足观测场与理论场的拟合误差最小,最大限度发挥地质学家的经验和对区域地质的理解。利用主块体和次级块体思想对地质体进行剖分建模,在保证模型精度的同时,减少总的模型块体个数,大幅提高模型正演运算速度,有效解决三维反演建模方法在建模过程中对模型复杂度和规模的限制,可方便构建形态复杂、不同规模的三维地质模型。并将该方法应用于湖北大冶铁矿区,构建大冶铁矿研究区三维地质模型,验证了该方法的可行性及合理性。

关键词: 三维地质建模航磁位场模拟大冶铁矿    
Abstract:

With the increasing difficulty of finding the shallow surface deposit and the increasing depth of resources exploration, three-dimensional modeling technology is more apparent in deep prospecting, and its accuracy directly determines the cognitive degree of geological body and metallogenic condition. For this, we put forward a set of the extraction technology of abnormal information combined with aeromagnetic data processing with three-dimensional geological modeling. Inversing the selected profile of the study area and obtaining each profile geological model, we built three-dimensional geological model of geological units by the method of profile linked, using undulating terrain three-dimensional block magnetic field forward techniques to model the three-dimensional geological model of the whole area, and obtained the forward modeling results of the whole three-dimensional geological model and the geological unit. After the comparative analysis with the test result, adding reasonable geological constraints and revising model, through adjusting for many times, we made the model maximum close to the actual situation. The model can well reflect the geological information and make minimum fitting error of observations and theoretical field, with which geologists can use the most of their experience and get more regional geological understanding. Using the thought of main block and secondary block to subdivision modeling of geological body, on the condition of ensuring the accuracy of model, the number of the total model block decreased and the multi-window and multi-geological body parallel computing method were used to improve the modeling speed, effectively solve the limitation problem of the model complexity in the process of the three-dimensional inversion modeling method, and easily form complex and different sizes three-dimensional geological model. We applied this method to the Hubei Daye area, constructed the three-dimensional geological model of Daye Iron Mine, and verified the feasibility and rationality of this method.

Key words: Three-dimensional Geological Modeling    Aeromagnetic    Potential field simulation    Daye iron ore.
收稿日期: 2017-10-10 出版日期: 2018-05-02
ZTFLH:  P631  
基金资助: *国家重点研发计划项目“综合航空物探地球物理探测系统集成方法技术研究”(编号:2017YFC0602201);河北地质大学博士科研启动基金项目“基于三维地质建模的深部矿致异常信息提取方法研究”(编号:BQ2017055)资助.
作者简介:

作者简介:侯征(1980-),男,内蒙古呼和浩特人,讲师,主要从事航磁资料处理、解释及地球物理非线性联合反演研究.E-mail:hou_zheng@163.com

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引用本文:

侯征, 王天意, 于长春, 熊盛青, 邸龙. 基于航磁数据的三维地质建模研究[J]. 地球科学进展, 2018, 33(3): 257-269.

Zheng Hou, Tianyi Wang, Changchun Yu, Shengqing Xiong, Long Di. Study of 3D Geological Modeling Based on Aeromagnetic Data. Advances in Earth Science, 2018, 33(3): 257-269.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.03.0257        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V33/I3/257

图1  长方体模型解析 “奇点”示意图
图2  长方体组合模型示意图
图3  曲面上观测点与模型单元空间关系示意图
图4  观测点位于块体上方时模型示意图及正演计算结果(a) 模型1和模型2示意图;(b) 模型1正演计算结果;(c)模型2正演计算结果
图5  观测点位于块体下方时模型示意图及正演计算结果(a)模型单元与观测剖面示意图; (b)剖面1和剖面2正演计算结果; (c)改正后剖面1和剖面2正演计算结果
图6  岩体实体模型
图7  三级剖分块体模型及参数
参数
名称
磁化强度
/(A/m)
磁偏角
磁倾角
地磁偏角
地磁倾角
地质体1 1.5 -3.3 45.6 -3.3 45.6
地质体2 1.8 -3.3 45.6 -3.3 45.6
地质体3 1.75 -3.3 55.2 -3.3 45.6
矿体 200 72.8 25 -3.3 45.6
表1  试验模型参数
图8  试验模型
图9  试验模型正演结果(a)模型1正演结果;(b)模型2正演结果;(c)模型1减去模型2结果;(d)矿体正演结果
图10  湖北大冶铁矿研究区地质简图1.含石英闪长斑岩;2.透辉石闪长岩;3.闪长岩;4.粗斑含石英闪长斑岩;5.巨斑状闪长岩;6.黑云母透辉石闪长岩;7.斑状花岗闪长岩;8.第四系;9.三叠系灰岩;10.二叠系地层;11.废石堆
岩性 磁化率/10-5 SI 剩余磁化强度/(A/m) 磁倾角I
范围 常见值 范围 常见值
沉积岩类 0~55 21 - - -
斑状花岗闪长岩 517~1 916 1 074 0.21~0.50 0.33 51
透辉石闪长岩 750~2 314 1 458 0.12~0.71 0.40 45
细斑含石英闪长斑岩 462~3 528 1 568 0.3~3.19 1.05
粗斑含石英闪长斑岩 343~2 591 1 741 0.3~3.46 1.20 54
闪长岩 909~2 808 1 829 0.27~2.49 1.36 48
黑云母透辉石闪长岩 5 249~11 640 6 899 0.4~5.46 3.07 42
磁铁矿 9 007~175 180 85 805 5.59~87.62 43.24 75
矽卡岩 11 189~102 000 29 956 - - -
表2  研究区岩(矿)石磁性参数统计表
图11  P11剖面反演结果1.推断矿体;2.含石英闪长斑岩;3. 闪长岩;4. 黑云母透辉石闪长岩;5. 大理岩;6.采空区;7. 观测曲线;8. 计算曲线;9. 飞行高度线;10. 地形线;11. 模型体序号
序号 磁性体类型 磁化倾角
磁化强度
/(10-2 A/m)
走向延伸
/km
磁化偏角
1 含石英闪长斑岩 45.6 130 4 -3.3
2 黑云母透辉石闪长岩 45.6 400 2 -3.3
3 透辉石闪长岩 45.6 220 4 -3.3
4 含石英闪长斑岩 45.6 130 4 -3.3
Fe1 推断磁铁矿 65 15 000 0.6 10
Fe2 推断磁铁矿 65 15 000 0.3 10
表3  P11剖面反演模型物性参数表
图12  实测结果与三维地质初始模型正演△T等值线平面图(a) 实测△T结果; (b) 三维地质初始模型正演△T结果
图13  研究区三维地质模型(a)三维地质模型与△T立体图;(b)实测△T结果;(c)修正后模型后正演△T结果; 1.大理岩;2.含石英闪长斑岩;3.黑云母透辉石闪长岩;4.闪长岩;5.透辉石闪长岩;6.斑状花岗闪长岩;7.矿体
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