地球科学进展 ›› 2020, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (7): 742 -749. doi: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2020.061

可持续发展研究 上一篇    下一篇

生态问题的社会经济检视
蔡运龙( )   
  1. 国家发展研究院瑞意高等研究所 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-02 修回日期:2020-03-12 出版日期:2020-07-10

Socio-Economic Perspectives on Ecological Problems

Yunlong Cai( )   

  1. Raissun Institute for Advanced Studies in National School of Development, School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2020-01-02 Revised:2020-03-12 Online:2020-07-10 Published:2020-08-21
  • About author:Cai Yunlong (1948-), male, Guiyang City, Guizhou Province, Professor. Research areas include integrated physical geography, land change, geography thought. E-mail: caiyl@urban.pku.edu.cn

人类社会经济活动是造成生态问题的主要和根本原因,生态问题又反过来冲击社会经济,因此必须从社会经济的视角来检视生态问题。国际学术界对“人类世”概念的认同,以及“国际全球环境变化人文因素计划”和“未来地球计划”的执行,都表明对当代生态问题进行社会经济透视的重要性。生态问题本质上是社会经济问题,需要从社会、经济、政治的角度去认识,于是产生了政治生态学、“公地的悲剧”以及社会—生态系统分析等理论。以社会经济的视角检视生态问题的制度因素和退化生态系统治理,表明需要加强从社会经济方面寻求根本解决途径的研究,以助力社会经济的发展并使退化生态系统走上“以自然恢复为主”的轨道。为此,生态问题研究要在体制与政策变革、发展模式转型以及科学技术创新3个层面上寻求解决之道。

Human activities are the main and root cause of ecological problems, while human activity is socio-economic activity. Therefore, ecological problems must be examined from the perspective of socio-economy. The identification of the Anthropocene concept in the international academic community and the implementation of IHDP and the Future Earth show the importance of socio-economic perspective on contemporary ecological problems. Ecological problem is essentially socio-economic issue, and it needs understanding from a socio-economic and political point of view. As a result, political ecology, theories of the tragedy of the commons and socio-ecosystem analysis have emerged. Examining the institutional factors of ecological problems and the reconstruction of degraded ecosystems from a socio-economic perspective indicate that the research on the socio-economic aspects needs to be strengthened so as to obtain the fundamental solutions. In this way, the development of social economy will be promoted and the degraded ecosystems can go on the right track of natural recovery. For these purposes, the study of ecological problems should seek solutions at three levels: institutional and political reform, development model transformation and scientific and technological innovation.

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