Please wait a minute...
img img
高级检索
地球科学进展  2006, Vol. 21 Issue (10): 1025-1032    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2006.10.1025
综述与评述     
城市景观格局的大气环境效应研究进展
张惠远1,2,饶胜1,2,迟妍妍2,金陶陶1
1.中国环境规划院,北京 100012;2.中国环境科学研究院,北京 100012
Advances in the Impacts of Urban Landscape Pattern on Urban Air Environment
Zhang Huiyuan1,2,Rao Sheng1,2,Chi Yanyan2,Jin Taotao1
1.Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning, Beijing 100012,China;2. Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012,China
 全文: PDF(109 KB)  
摘要:

城市规划不仅需要适应区域气候,更需要通过城市自身的合理空间配置来缓解因城市化引起的城市大气环境问题,因此,加强城市景观格局大气环境效应的研究对于提高城市规划的水平具有重要的意义。从城市下垫面的大气环境效应、大气数值模式、遥感应用技术以及城市规划的气候适应性等方面综述了城市景观格局的大气环境效应的研究进展,并分析了城市景观格局的大气环境效应应用于城市规划面临的主要问题。尽管城市景观组分的大气环境效应已经得到充分认识和应用,但是景观组分的空间组合,即城市景观格局对城市大气环境的影响及其应用研究仅仅处于起步的阶段。为了推动城市景观格局的大气环境效应研究并应用于城市规划之中,除了需要深入研究“格局影响过程”的机制外,还需要重点解决2个问题:一是寻找能够用来研究城市景观格局与大气环境相互作用的格局参数;二是确认具有一般意义的理想城市景观格局模式。

关键词: 景观格局城市规划遥感城市大气环境    
Abstract:

In this paper, the studies of impacts of urban landscape patterns and their dynamics on urban air environment are reviewed by the following four facets: the effects of urban surface, the numeric simulation model, the remote sensing techniques and the applications in urban planning. The numeric model can simulate the structure and dynamic of atmosphere layers, which is the key means to study the impacts of urban landscape patterns. Remote sensing can play an important role in the studies, which can provide detailed information about urban land surface and important parameters needed in the air simulation models. However, to improve the application of the atmosphere simulation models and remote sensing techniques, it is necessary to make progress in many fields. The advance of the relevant studies showed that the effects and applications of the landscape elements on urban air environments were identified. However, those of total urban landscape patters were not completely apparent, and are still at the preliminary stage. For advancing the applications of knowledge about the impacts of landscape patterns in urban planning, studies should be carried out in combination of multidiscipline at different scale to emphasize the following two questions: Is there any index of landscape patterns highly correlative with urban air environment? Is there optimal landscape pattern for urban air environment? 

Key words: Air environment    Remote sensing.    Urban    Landscape pattern    Urban planning
收稿日期: 2006-05-08 出版日期: 2006-10-15
:  X16  
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目“城市景观格局变化对城市大气环境的影响及调控对策”(编号:40401023)资助.

通讯作者: 张惠远     E-mail: zhanghy@craes.org.cn
作者简介: 张惠远(1969-),男,新疆伊犁人,博士,副研究员,主要从事景观生态、区域生态保护和规划研究.E-mail:zhanghy@craes.org.cn
服务  
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章  
迟妍妍
张惠远
金陶陶
饶胜

引用本文:

张惠远,饶胜,迟妍妍,金陶陶. 城市景观格局的大气环境效应研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2006, 21(10): 1025-1032.

Zhang Huiyuan,Rao Sheng,Chi Yanyan,Jin Taotao. Advances in the Impacts of Urban Landscape Pattern on Urban Air Environment. Advances in Earth Science, 2006, 21(10): 1025-1032.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2006.10.1025        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2006/V21/I10/1025

[1] Arnfield A J. Two decades of urban climate research: A review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island[J]. International Journal of Climatology,2003,23(1):1-26.

[2] Segiu T, Aurora Stan-Sion, et al. Influences of the city of Bucharest on weather and climate parameters[J]. Atmospheric Environment,1999,33:4 173-4 183.

[3] Wu J G, Hobbs R. Key issues and research priorities in landscape ecology: An idiosyncratic synthesis[J]. Landscape Ecology,2002,(17):355-365.

[4] Fu Bojie,Chen Liding,Ma Keming,et al. Principles and Applicaitons of Landscape Ecology[M]. Beijing: Science Press,2001. [傅伯杰,陈利顶,马克明,等编著. 景观生态学原理及应用[M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 2001.]

[5] Pielke R A, Avissa R. Influence of landscape structure on local and regional climate[J]. Landscape Ecology, 1990, 4:133-155.

[6] Xu Xiangde,Tang Xu,Xu Dahai,et al, eds. Introduction to Meteorology in Urbanization Environment[M]. Beijing: China Meteorological Press,2001. [徐祥德,汤绪,徐大海,等编著. 城市化环境气象学引论[M].北京:气象出版社,2001.]

[7] Hayden B P. Ecosystem feedbacks on climate at the landscape scale[J]. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences,1998,353(1 365):5-18.

[8] Song Zhiqing, Wang Yanglin. The dynamics of urban landscape pattern and its ecological impact on planning[J]. Advances in Earth Science,2005,20(8):840-844. [宋治清,王仰麟. 城市景观格局动态及其规划的生态学探讨[J]. 地球科学进展,2005,20(8):840-844.]

[9] Jonsson P. Vegetation as an urban climate control in the subtropical city of Gaborone, Botswana[J]. International Journal of Climatology,2004,24(10):1 307-1 322.

[10] Wang Fang. Urbanization and Sustainable Development in China[M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2000. [王放.中国城市化与可持续发展[M]. 北京:科学出版社,2000.]

[11] Earth Sciences Division of NSFC. 2006's Proposal Guide Lines to Earth Sciences Supported by NFSC[J]. Advances in Earth Science,2005,20(12):1 271-1 279.[国家自然科学基金委员会地球科学部. 2006年度国家自然科学基金项目指南(地球科学部分)[J]. 地球科学进展,2005,20(12):1 271-1 279.]

[12] Wu Jianguo. Landscape Ecology—Patterns, Process, Scale and Hierarchy[M]. Beijing: High Education Press, 2000. [邬建国. 景观生态学——格局、过程、尺度与等级[M]. 北京:高教出版社,2000.]

[13] Bottyán Z, Unger J. A multiple linear statistical model for estimating the mean maximum urban heat island[J]. Theoretical and Applied Climatology,2003,75(3/4):233-243.

[14] Zhang Jingzhe, Liu Qiming. Temporal variations in the relationship between urban temperature and the structure of urban surface in Beijing[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica,1988,43(2):159-168. [张景哲,刘启明. 北京城市气温与下垫面结构关系的时相变化[J]. 地理学报,1988,43(2):159-168.]

[15] Zhou Hongmei,Ding Jincai,Xu Yiming,et al. The monitoring and evaluation of relationship between heat island effect and greenbelt distribution in Shanghai urban area[J]. Acta Agricluturae Shanghai,2002,18(2): 83-88. [周红妹,丁金才,徐一鸣,. 城市热岛效应与绿地分布的关系监测和评估[J]. 上海农业学报,2002,18(2):83-88.]

[16] Gomez F, Gaja E, Reig A. Vegetation and climatic changes in a city[J]. Ecological Economics,1998,(10): 355-360.

[17] Spronken-smith R A, Oke T R. The thermal region of urban parks in two cities with different summer climates[J]. International Journal of Remote Sensing,1998,19(11):2 085-2 104.

[18] Yang Shihong. Urban Ecology and Environment (2nd)[M]. Beijing:Science Press,2003. [杨士弘编著. 城市生态环境学(第二版)[M]. 北京:科学出版社,2003.]

[19] Chen Zixin,Su Xueheng,Liu Shaozong,et al. The study on the ecological effects of city gardens in Beijing[J]. Journal of Chinese Landscape Architecture,1998,14(55):57. [陈自新,苏雪痕,刘少宗,. 北京城市园林绿化生态效益的研究[J]. 中国园林,1998,14(55):57.]

[20] Saaroni H, Ziv B. The impact of a small lake on heat stress in a Mediterranean urban park: The case of Tel Aviv, Israel[J]. International Journal of Biometeorology,2003,47(3):156-165.

[21] Qian Lexiang, Ding Shengyan. Influence of land cover change on land surface temperature in Zhujiang Delta[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica,2005,60(5):761-770. [钱乐祥,丁圣彦. 珠江三角洲土地覆盖变化对地表温度的影响[J]. 地理学报,2005,60(5):761-770.]

[22] 王伟武. 地表演变对城市热环境影响的定量研究[D].杭州:浙江大学,2004.

[23] Eliasson I, Svensson M K. Spatial air temperature variations and urban land use—A statistical approach[J]. Meteorological Applications,2003,10(2):135-149.

[24] Avissar R. Potential effects of vegetation on the urban thermal environment[J]. Atmospheric Enviroment, 1996, 30(3):437-448.

[25] Chen Yunhao, Shi Peijun, Li Xiaobing. Research on spatial thermal environment in Shanghai City based on Remote Sensing and GIS[J]. Acta Geodaetica et Cartographica Sinica,2002,31(2):139-144. [陈云浩,史培军,李晓兵. 基于遥感和GIS的上海城市空间热环境研究[J]. 测绘学报,2002,31(2):139-144.]

[26] Oke T R. Canyon geometry and the nocturnal urban heat island:Comparison of scale model and field observations [J]. International Journal of Climatology,1981,1:237-254.

[27] Wei Bin, Wang Jingxu, Zhang Tao. Improvement of assessment methods for ecological effect of urban green land[J]. Urban Environment & Urban Ecology,1997,10(4):54-56. [魏斌,王景旭,张涛. 城市绿地生态效果评价方法的改进[J]. 城市环境与城市生态,1997,10(4):54-56.]

[28] Zhou Zhixiang,Shao Tianyi,Tang Wanpeng,et al. The different urban green-land spatial patterns and their environmental effects: A case of the central district of Yichang city, Hubei province[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinaca, 2004, 24(2):186-192. [周志翔,邵天一,唐万鹏,. 城市绿地空间格局及其环境效应——以宜昌市中心城区为例[J]. 生态学报,2004,24(2):186-192.]

[29] Yokohari M,Brown R D,Kato Y,et al. The cooling effect of paddy fields on summertime air temperature in residential Tokyo, Japan[J]. Landscape And Urban Planning,2001,53(1/4):17-27.

[30] Yan H, Anthes K A. The effect of variations in surface moisture on mesoscale circulations[J]. Monthly Weather Review,1988,11(6):192-208.

[31] Luo Zhexian. A numerical study of effect of width of plant zone on local climate[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica,1994,49(1):37-45. [罗哲贤. 植被带宽度对局地环流及温度场影响的数值研究[J]. 地理学报, 1994,49(1):37-45.]

[32] 佟华. 城市边界层模式的建立发展和应用[D]. 北京: 北京大学, 2003.

[33] Wang Baomin, Ke Yongdong, Sang Jianguo. An overview of study on atmospheric environment in urban street canyons[J]. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium, Universitatis Pekinensis,2005,41:146-153.[王宝民,柯永东,桑建国. 城市街谷大气环境研究进展[J]. 北京大学学报:自然科学版,2005,41:146-153.]

[34] Dai Y J,Zeng X B,Dickinson R E,et al. The common land model[J]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society,2003,84(8):1 013-1 014.

[35] Liu Gang, Jiang Weimei, Luo Yunfeng. Status quo and prospects of reseraches on atmospheric boundary layer over inhomogeneous underlying surface[J]. Advances in Earth Science,2005,20(2):223-230. [刘罡,蒋维楣,罗云峰. 非均匀下垫面边界层研究现状与展望[J]. 地球科学进展,2005,20(2):223-230.]

[36] Liu Chuang, Ge Chenghui. Characteristic and application of Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradio-meter (MODIS)[J]. Remote Sensing Information,2000,(3):45-48.[刘闯, 葛成辉. 美国对地观测系统(EOS)中分辨率成像光谱仪(MODIS)遥感数据的特点与应用[J]. 遥感信息,2000,(3):45-48.]

[37] Qin Zhihao,Zhang M H,Arnon K,et al. Mono-window algorithm for retrieving land surface temperautre from landsat TM6 data[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica,2001,56(4):456-466.[覃志豪,Zhang M H,Arnon K,. 用陆地卫星TM6数据演算地表温度的单窗算法[J]. 地理学报,2001,56(4):456-466.]

[38] Clery D. Atmospheric science-Technique from outer space takes on Earth observation[J]. Science,2006,312(5 770):48-49.

[39] Tian Y,Dickinson R E,Zhou L,et al. Land boundary conditions from MODIS data and consequences for the albedo of a climate model[J]. Geophysical Research Letters,2004,31(5):L05504,10.1029/2003GL019104.

[40] Roth M,Oke T R, Emery W J. Satellite-derived urban heat island from three coastal cities and the utilization of such data in urban climatology[J]. International Journal of Remote Sensing,1989,(10):1 699-1 720.

[41] Voogt J A, Oke T R. Thermal remote sensing of urban climates[J]. Remote Sensing of Environment, 2003, 86(3):370-384.

[42] Eliasson I. Urban nocturnal temperatures, street geometry and land use[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 1996, 30(3):379-392.

[43] Gong Zhaoxian, Wu Wei. Measures improving urban warm climate by urban planning and design[J]. Planners, 2005,(8):74-77. [龚兆先,吴薇. 改善城市热气候的规划与设计措施[J]. 规划师,2005,(8):74-77.]

[44] Wang Xinsheng. The application of wind roses in urban planning[J]. Wtusm Bulletin of Science and Technology, 1994,(3): 35-38. [王新生. 浅谈风玫瑰图在城市规划中的应用[J]. 武测科技, 1994,(3): 35-38.]

[45] Chen Boqi. The assemblage, stories and patterns of dwelling house in South of China—Adapted with urban climate[J]. Architectural Journal,1963,(8):4-9. [陈伯齐. 南方城市住宅平面组合、层数与群组布局问题——从适应气候角度探讨[J]. 建筑学报,1963,(8):4-9.]

[46] Tong Hua,Liu Huizhi,Li Yanming,et al. Actuality of summer urban heat island and the impact of urban planning "wedge-shaped greenland" to reducing the intensity of urban heat island in Beijing[J]. Journal of Applied Meteorological Science,2005,16(3):357-366. [佟华,刘辉志,李延明,. 北京夏季城市热岛现状及楔形绿地规划对缓解城市热岛的作用[J]. 应用气象学报,2005,16(3):357-366.]

[47] Eliasson I. The use of climate knowledge in urban planning[J]. Landscape And Urban Planning, 2000, 48(1/2):31-44.

[48] Turner M G, Gardner R H. Quantitative Methods in Landsacpe Ecology[M]. New York:Springer-Verlag,1991.

[49] Svensson M K, Eliasson I. Diurnal air temperatures in built-up areas in relation to urban planning[J]. Landscape and Urban Planning,2002,61(1):37-54.

[50] Scherer D,Fehrenbach U,Beha H D,et al. Improved concepts and methods in analysis and evaluation of the urban climate for optimizing urban planning processes[J]. Atmospheric Environment,1999,33(24/25):4 185-4 193.

[51] Chen Yan,Jiang Weimei,Xu Min,et al. Simulation of greenbelts effect on meteorological environment in urban planning[J]. Chinese Journal of Geophysics,2005,48(2):265-274. [陈燕,蒋维楣,徐敏,. 城市规划中绿化布局对区域气象环境影响的数值试验研究[J]. 地球物理学报,2005,48(2): 265-274.]

[1] 马晋, 周纪, 刘绍民, 王钰佳. 卫星遥感地表温度的真实性检验研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2017, 32(6): 615-629.
[2] 晋锐, 李新, 马明国, 葛咏, 刘绍民, 肖青, 闻建光, 赵凯, 辛晓平, 冉有华, 柳钦火, 张仁华. 陆地定量遥感产品的真实性检验关键技术与试验验证[J]. 地球科学进展, 2017, 32(6): 630-642.
[3] 李青, 雷连发, 王振会, 魏鸣, 李东帅. 雷电流热效应的遥感观测研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2017, 32(5): 481-487.
[4] 方迎波, 占文凤, 黄帆, 高伦, 全金玲, 邹照旭. 长三角城市群表面城市热岛日内逐时变化规律[J]. 地球科学进展, 2017, 32(2): 187-198.
[5] 李正泉, 宋丽莉, 马浩, 冯涛, 王阔. 海上风能资源观测与评估研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2016, 31(8): 800-810.
[6] 彭志兴, 周纪, 李明松. 基于地面观测的异质性下垫面像元尺度地表温度模拟研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2016, 31(5): 471-480.
[7] 张 勇, 戎志国, 闵 敏. 中国遥感卫星辐射校正场热红外通道在轨场地辐射定标方法精度评估[J]. 地球科学进展, 2016, 31(2): 171-179.
[8] 白龙, 路紫, 杜欣儒, 郜方. 城市区域(超)低空空域无人机活动通道划设规则与方法[J]. 地球科学进展, 2016, 31(11): 1197-1204.
[9] 崔月菊, 杜建国, 李营, 刘雷, 周晓成, 陈扬, 陈志, 韩晓昆. 张渤地震带高光谱气体地球化学特征[J]. 地球科学进展, 2016, 31(1): 59-65.
[10] 吴炳方, 邢强. 遥感的科学推动作用与重点应用领域[J]. 地球科学进展, 2015, 30(7): 751-762.
[11] 兰鑫宇, 郭子祺, 田野, 雷霞, 王婕. 土壤湿度遥感估算同化研究综述[J]. 地球科学进展, 2015, 30(6): 668-679.
[12] 房小怡, 王晓云, 杜吴鹏, 李磊, 任希岩, 贺健, 程宸, 刘勇洪. 我国城市规划中气候信息应用回顾与展望[J]. 地球科学进展, 2015, 30(4): 445-455.
[13] 吴珊珊, 姚治君, 姜丽光, 刘兆飞. 现代冰川体积变化研究方法综述[J]. 地球科学进展, 2015, 30(2): 237-246.
[14] 孙平军, 修春亮, 吕飞. 城市空间扩展非协调性识别的基础理论与实证分析[J]. 地球科学进展, 2015, 30(2): 247-258.
[15] 黄磊, 李震, 周建民, 田帮森. SAR监测冰川变化研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(9): 985-994.