1. 1.福建省气象台，福建 福州 350001
2.中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室，北京 100081
3.福建省灾害天气重点实验室，福建 福州 350001
4.武夷山国家气候观象台，福建 武夷山 354306
5.复旦大学大气与海洋科学系，上海 200438
6.北京师范大学地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室，北京 100875
7.中国海洋大学深海圈层与地球系统前沿科学中心/物理海洋教育部重点实验室/ 海洋高等研究院 山东 青岛 266100
8.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋动力过程与气候功能实验室 山东 青岛 266237
• 收稿日期:2021-03-25 修回日期:2021-05-21 出版日期:2021-06-10
• 通讯作者: 李建平 E-mail:deqiang_1987@163.com;ljp@ouc.edu.cn
• 基金资助:
福建省自然科学基金面上项目“台湾海峡地区台风强度可预报性全局特征研究”(2020J01100);灾害天气国家重点实验室开放课题“台湾海峡台风局部气候态敏感区研究”(2020LASW-B10)

Review of the Research Progress in Targeted Observing for Typhoons

Deqiang LIU 1, 2, 3, 4( ),Jie FENG 5,Ruiqiang DING 6,Jianping LI 7, 8( )

1. 1.Fujian Meteorological Observatory，Fuzhou 350001，China
2.State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather，Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences，Beijing 100081，China
3.Fujian Key Laboratory of Severe Weather，Fuzhou 350001，China
4.Wuyishan National Climatological Observatory，Wuyishan Fujian 354306，China
5.Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences，Fudan University，Shanghai 200438，China
6.State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Progress and Resource Ecology，Beijing Normal University，Beijing 100875，China
7.Frontiers Science Center for Deep Ocean Multispheres and Earth System （FDOMES）/Key Laboratory of Physical Oceanography/Institute for Advanced Ocean Studies，Ocean University of China，Qingdao 266100，China
8.Laboratory for Ocean Dynamics and Climate，Pilot Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology，Qingdao 266237，China
• Received:2021-03-25 Revised:2021-05-21 Online:2021-06-10 Published:2021-07-22
• Contact: Jianping LI E-mail:deqiang_1987@163.com;ljp@ouc.edu.cn
• About author:LIU Deqiang (1987-), male, Hailun City, Heilongjiang Province, Senior engineer. Research areas include numerical simulations, predictability study. E-mail: deqiang_1987@163.com
• Supported by:
the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province "Study on the global predictability characteristics of typhoon intensity that affecting the Taiwan strait"(2020J01100);The Open Project of State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences "A study of the local climatological sensitivity area for typhoons affecting the Taiwan Strait"(2020LASW-B10)

Targeted observing for typhoons would be helpful in both the scientific endeavor and practical significance to making up the lack of conventional observations and improving numerical prediction skills. Relevant developments of two clusters of theoretical methods were summarized， and the advantages as well as the disadvantages were compared. The methods involving adjoint model can better describe the influence of nonlinear errors， while the methods based on ensembles save more computing resources. The applications of some new observation instruments and platforms which represent the current most advanced observation technology to the field campaigns for typhoons landing in China were overviewed. Then the feasibility of targeted observing for typhoon was summarized from two perspectives of individual case and multiple individual cases. Moreover， it is found that factors including tangent linearity hypothesis， model defects， selected metrics， and ensemble numbers may lead to significant differences in locating the sensitivity areas of typhoons， which should not be neglected. Future research directions should highlight the applications of targeted observing to typhoon intensity， the further developments of nonlinear methods and numerical models， and the implement schemes of typhoon targeted observing that is suitable for the meteorological operations in China.

titi +1ti +2ti+n等代表观测时刻，其中 t dt obst vf分别是决策时刻、目标观测时刻和验证时刻； t ana是分析时刻， t 0t 1是对应 t obst vf的预报时刻
Fig. 1 Illustration of the typical procedure for the deployment of targeted observations 14
titi +1ti +2 and ti+nrepresent the observation time，and t dt obst vf is the decision time， the targeted observation time and the verification time， respectively. t ana is the analysis time， t 0 and t 1 indicate the forecast time corresponding to t obs and t vf