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地球科学进展  2019, Vol. 34 Issue (1): 72-83    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.01.0072
    
海洋微塑料输运的数值模拟研究进展
张晨1(),王清2,*(),赵建民1,2
1. 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所牟平海岸带环境综合试验站,山东 烟台 264003
2. 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所海岸带生物资源高效利用研究与发展中心,山东 烟台 264003
Numerical Simulation of Transportation of Marine Microplastics A Review
Chen Zhang1(),Qing Wang2,*(),Jianmin Zhao1,2
1. Muping Coastal Environment Research Station, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shandong Yantai 264003, China
2. Research and Development Center for Efficient Utilization of Coastal Bioresources, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shandong Yantai 264003, China
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摘要:

微塑料采样数据在时间、空间上的不连续性限制了对微塑料源、汇区域、传输途径及发展趋势的研究。采用现场调查与数值模拟相结合的方法,能够综合研究微塑料自身特征、气象及水动力环境因素对微塑料分布和输运的影响。主要从微塑料输运的数值模拟方法、模拟研究及应用方面综述微塑料模拟研究进展,可归纳为:微塑料输运模型主要驱动场(流场)的构建;风、海浪、地形和极端海况等环境因素对不同(粒径、密度和形状)微塑料粒子性质和输运过程的影响;数值模拟工具在微塑料清除研究中的应用。同时基于近年来数值模拟方法在微塑料研究中的应用,展望未来该领域需要关注的研究方向,包括结合实测数据和输运模型,研究微塑料的分布特征及演变规律;微塑料输运的相关参数(粗糙度、风拖曳系数、沉降速率和再悬浮速率和污损率等)对气象和水动力影响响应的模拟研究,相应的敏感性模拟实验结果需要与采样调查和实验室检测结果对比验证,以改进数值模型的经验参数和公式。

关键词: 微塑料数值模拟输运海洋动力过程    
Abstract:

The temporal and spatial discontinuity of microplastic sampling data restricts the investigation on their source, sink, transport pathway and trend. Numerical simulation combined with sampling investigation can comprehensively study the effects of microplastic characteristics, meteorology and hydrodynamics on the distribution and transportation of microplastics. In this paper, the studies of microplastic numerical simulation were reviewed from the aspects of numerical simulating research and their applications in microplastic tranportation, and the results were summarized as follows: The construction of the main driving force (current); the influence of environmental factors, such as wind, waves, topography and extreme sea conditions on the properties of microplastics with different characteristics (particle size, density, shape) and their tranportation; the application of numerical simulation in the study of microplastic removal. Based on progress on the study of numerical simulation of marine microplastics, the future directions were pointed out that the further simulating studies should focuson the spatio-temporal distribution and evolvement of microplastics by combining sampling data and numerical model, the simulating research on the relationship between microplastic parameters (roughness, wind drag coefficient, settling rate, resuspension rate and biofouling rate) and (meteorological and ocean) dynamic condition. Moreover, the results of simulating sensitivity experiments should be compared with sampling and laboratory testing data to improve the empirical parameters and formulas of numerical model.

Key words: Microplastics    Numerical simulation    Transportation of microplastics    Marine dynamic process.
收稿日期: 2018-09-25 出版日期: 2019-03-05
ZTFLH:  P76  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金面上项目“莱州湾塑料微粒(microplastics)的污染现状及其毒性效应研究”(编号: 41576122);中国科学院青年创新促进会(编号:2016196)
通讯作者: 王清     E-mail: chenzhang@yic.ac.cn;qingwang@yic.ac.cn
作者简介: 张晨(1984-),男,山东莱阳人,工程师,主要从事物理海洋学研究. E-mail:chenzhang@yic.ac.cn|王清(1981-),男,山东济宁人,副研究员,主要从事海洋生态学研究. E-mail:qingwang@yic.ac.cn
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引用本文:

张晨,王清,赵建民. 海洋微塑料输运的数值模拟研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2019, 34(1): 72-83.

Chen Zhang,Qing Wang,Jianmin Zhao. Numerical Simulation of Transportation of Marine Microplastics A Review. Advances in Earth Science, 2019, 34(1): 72-83.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.01.0072        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2019/V34/I1/72

数据库/数值模型 数据库/数值模型描述
BLUELink 澳大利亚联邦科学与工业研究组织CSIRO提供的海况精确预报和分析模型[52]
Connie2/ Connie3 由CSIRO开发并共享的海水中粒子运动轨迹的可视化工具[53]
ECCO1/ECCO2 海洋环流与气候评估数据库,由美国国家航空航天局(NASA)喷气推进实验室(JPL)和麻省理工学院(MIT)构建的集合卫星数据和原位观测海洋数据的多源海洋数据系统[54]
ECMWF ORA-S3 欧洲中尺度天气预报中心ECMWF海洋再分析数据[54]
Global drifter program 美国国家海洋和大气管理局(NOAA)提供的卫星追踪海表漂流浮标数据[53,55]
GNOME NOAA提供的可控环境模型,用于模拟海洋中污染粒子的运动轨迹[56]
HYCOM 由美国海军全球大气预报系统(NOGAP)驱动的混合坐标模型HYCOM[57,58]
NCOM 美国海军海洋局(NAVOCEANO)提供的全球实时海洋数据(分辨率为1/8°),由海军近岸模型NCOM驱动[54]
NEMO 欧洲海洋模型NEMO[59]
NLOM 美国海军海洋局(NAVOCEANO)提供的全球实时海洋数据(分辨率为1/32°),由海军层化模型NLOM驱动[54]
OSCAR 由NOAA提供的海表流场再分析实时数据[60]
OSCURS 由NOAA提供的海洋流场模型[61,62]
PELET-2D 二维拉格朗日粒子追踪模型[63]
plasticadrift.org Sebille等由全球海表漂流浮标信息反演的表层漂浮碎屑运动轨迹数据[64,65]
Pol3DD 拉格朗日三维数值扩散模型[57,58]
SCUD 国际太平洋研究中心IPRC研发的表面海流诊断工具[44,45]
SODA 由美国国家大气研究中心开发的简单海洋再分析数据库[54,66]
表1  可获取的海洋再分析资料、动力学模型、粒子运动轨迹数据和PTM模型[51]
聚合物种类 聚合物密度/(g/cm3) 调查样品数
聚乙烯 0.92~0.97 33
聚丙烯 0.90~0.91 27
聚苯乙烯 1.04~1.10 17
锦纶(尼龙) 1.02~1.05 7
涤纶 1.24~2.30 4
丙烯酸 1.09~1.20 4
聚氧化乙烯 1.41~1.61 4
聚乙烯醇 1.19~1.31 3
聚氯乙烯 1.16~1.58 2
聚甲基丙烯酸酯 1.17~1.20 2
聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯 1.37~1.45 1
醇酸树脂 1.24~2.10 1
聚氨酯 1.20 1
表2  鉴定样品聚合物种类、密度和数量[78]
影响区域影响因素 近岸海域 大洋区域
海流 潮流影响为主,微塑料颗粒受其影响做往复运动[73,82,83] 大尺度环流和涡旋[14,76,77]
海浪 波浪破碎和斯托克斯漂输运[89~92]
风生Ekman流、风应力拖曳作用和风致混合[75,84,87,88,100]
地形地貌 地质、地貌、植被特征和人造工程[94,99,100]
河口径流 微塑料重要输入源,受流量、降雨和人类活动影响;河口锋面结构[76,94]
极端天气 强风浪搅拌,台风内波影响;海啸、风暴潮携带大量塑料污染进入海洋[45,101]
微塑料性质及其对环境的响应 微塑料颗粒材质、形状、密度、粒径和粗糙度影响其在海水中的风阻系数、污损速率、沉降速度、漂浮和再悬浮过程[84,85,95,99]
海上船舶和渔业活动 微塑料重要输入源,包括海上航道、平台设施和渔业资源丰富区域[69,71,72,75,76]
近岸人类活动 微塑料重要输入源,包括人类生产、生活和旅游[70,75,76]
表3  微塑料输运的影响因素
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