地球科学进展 ›› 2016, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (6): 560 -566. doi: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2016.06.0560.

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海洋微塑料生态风险研究进展与展望
孙晓霞   
  1. 1.中国科学院海洋研究所胶州湾生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站,山东 青岛 266071;
    2.青岛海洋国家实验室海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室,山东 青岛 266071;
    3.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2016-03-07 修回日期:2016-05-10 出版日期:2016-06-10
  • 基金资助:
    海洋专项子课题“热带西太平洋典型区域生物多样性与生物生产过程”(编号:XDA11030204); 国家重点基础研究发展计划项目“陆坡浮游生物群落分布及功能”(编号:2014CB441504)资助

Progress and Prospect on the Study of the Ecological Risk of Microplastics in the Ocean

Sun Xiaoxia   

  1. 1.Jiaozhou Bay Marine Ecosystem Research Station, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;
    2.Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China;
    3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2016-03-07 Revised:2016-05-10 Online:2016-06-10 Published:2016-06-10
  • About author:Sun Xiaoxia(1974-), female, Rongcheng City, Shandong Province, Professor. Research areas include marine ecology.E-mail:xsun@qdio.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    The project Supported by the Sub-project of the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences “Marine biodiversity and biological production in the tropical west Pacific”(No; XDA11030204); The National Basic Research Program of China “Distribution and function of the plankton community on the continental slope”(No.2014CB441504)
海洋中的微塑料是指通过各种途径进入海洋中的直径小于5 mm的塑料颗粒。在过去60年中全球塑料生产量增加了560倍,海洋环境中微塑料的积累在不断增加。微塑料或悬浮于海水中,或沉积到海底成为沉积物的组分,对海洋生态系统的潜在风险引起了研究人员的广泛关注。综述了海洋环境中微塑料的生态风险研究进展,包括微塑料在近海水体、沉积物以及大洋中的分布和浓度;底栖动物与浮游动物对微塑料的摄食作用;微塑料本身、微塑料添加剂以及微塑料吸附的污染物质对海洋生物的毒性效应研究进展。对未来需重点研究的领域进行了展望,包括微塑料采样与测定方法的优化,微塑料在不同海洋生境中的观测,微塑料的生态毒理学效应及食物链传递效应,微塑料生态风险评估方法学研究,期望能够为系统评估微塑料对我国近海生态系统的影响提供依据。
Microplastics in the ocean are the plastic fragments less than 5 mm in diameter, which enter into the ocean through a variety of ways. In the past 60 years, the global plastic production increased by 560 times, and the accumulation of microplastics in the marine environment is increasing. Microplastics suspend in seawater, or deposit to the bottom sediments. The potential risks of microplastics to marine ecosystems cause widespread concern. This paper summarized the research progress of the ecological risks of microplastics in the ocean, including the distribution and concentration of marine microplastics in coastal waters, sediment and open ocean, the ingestion of microplastics by different species of marine organisms, the ecotoxicology of microplastics, the plastics additives and the absorbed pollutants. The research directions were proposed for the future, including the optimization of microplastics sampling and measuring methods, microplastics observation in different marine habitats, the eco-toxicological effects of microplastics and food chain bioaccumulation effect, the methodology of microplastics ecological risk assessment. It is expected to provide evidence for the risk assessment of microplastics on Chinese coastal ecosystems.

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