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地球科学进展  2018, Vol. 33 Issue (4): 373-384    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.04.0373
综述与评述     
海水富营养化评价方法的研究进展与应用现状
林晓娟1,2,3(), 高姗1,3,*(), 仉天宇1,3, 刘桂梅1,3
1.国家海洋环境预报中心,北京 100081
2.厦门大学海洋与地球学院物理海洋学系,福建 厦门 361005
3.国家海洋局海洋灾害预报技术研究重点实验室,北京 100081
Researching Progress and Application Status of Eutrophication Evaluation Method of Seawater
Xiaojuan Lin1,2,3(), Shan Gao1,3,*(), Tianyu Zhang1,3, Guimei Liu1,3
1.National Marine Environmental Forcasting Center,Beijing 100081,China
2.Department of Physical Oceanography,College of Ocean and Earth Sciences,Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005,China
3.Key Laboratory of Research on Marine Hazards Forecasting, National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center,Beijing 100081,China
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摘要:

简要概述了海水富营养化的概念及对生态系统的影响。介绍了几类常用的海水富营养化评价方法,包括单因子法、富营养化指数法、水质指数法和营养状态质量法等国内常用的评价方法,以及近年来国际上发展起来的以富营养化症状为考虑因素的第二代海水富营养评价方法,包括综合评价法、河口富营养化评价法和波罗的海行动计划等,第二代方法的评价标准更为细化,对富营养化带来的环境效应也提供一定的判断标准。阐述了现阶段我国海水富营养化评价方法的应用现状,尤其是在近海河口区域针对富营养化程度进行的区域等级划分,旨在提出各种海水富营养化评价方法应用现状和特点,为不同海域在选用富营养化评价方法提供参考。最后,对海水富营养化评价的应用方向提出未来展望,给出水质监测管理以及海洋生态环境灾害预测防御的指导性建议。

关键词: 海洋富营养化评价方法    
Abstract:

The concept of eutrophication of seawater and its impact on the ecosystem were briefly summarized. The commonly used evaluation methods in China for eutrophication of seawater were introduced, including single factor, eutrophication index, water quality index and nutritional status, etc. In recent years, the second generation of seawater eutrophication evaluation methods, including OSPAR (Oslo-Paris Convention) Assessment Tool and NEEA-ASSESSMENT (United States National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment) and HELCOM (Helsinki Commission) Eutrophication Assessment Tool, has developed in the world, and the second generation method has had more refined evaluation standards, which provide some criterion to judge the eutrophication effects to the environment. The present situation of the application of seawater eutrophication evaluation method in our country at present stage was described, especially in the coastal and estuary areas, eutrophication degree of regional dividing was carried out, which aimed to put forward the application status and characteristics of various water eutrophication evaluation methods to provide references for the selection of eutrophication evaluation methods in different areas. Finally, the future prospects of the application of eutrophication assessment were put forward, and the guidance of the monitoring and management of water quality monitoring and the forecasting and defensing of marine eco-environmental disasters were presented.

Key words: Marine    Eutrophication    Evaluation method.
收稿日期: 2017-09-05 出版日期: 2018-05-24
ZTFLH:  P76  
基金资助: *国家重点研发计划海洋环境安全保障专项“中国近海与太平洋高分辨率生态环境数值预报系统”(编号:2016YFC1401605);国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目“南海低营养级生态模型营养盐循环过程的数值模拟研究”(编号:41206023)资助.
通讯作者: 高姗     E-mail: lin-xiaojuan@foxmail.com;gaoshan_nmefc@126.com
作者简介:

作者简介:林晓娟(1991-),女,福建福安人,硕士研究生,主要从事近岸海水富营养化研究.E-mail:lin-xiaojuan@foxmail.com

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引用本文:

林晓娟, 高姗, 仉天宇, 刘桂梅. 海水富营养化评价方法的研究进展与应用现状[J]. 地球科学进展, 2018, 33(4): 373-384.

Xiaojuan Lin, Shan Gao, Tianyu Zhang, Guimei Liu. Researching Progress and Application Status of Eutrophication Evaluation Method of Seawater. Advances in Earth Science, 2018, 33(4): 373-384.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.04.0373        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V33/I4/373

营养水平 赋分 浮游植物个体
密度/(万个/L)
Chl-a
/(mg/m3)
浮游植物多
样性指数
浮游植物均
匀度指数
贫营养型 1 <30 <1.90 >3 0.50.8
中营养型 2 30100 1.9010.9 13 0.30.5
富营养型 3 >100 >10.9 01 00.3
表1  富营养化分级等级表
类别 指示因子 用以评价的环境要素 评价标准
营养盐富
集因子
海水富营养
化直接原因
河流、点源等陆源TN和
TP排海通量
比前一年增加或
趋势增加50%以上
海水富营养
化直接结果
冬季目标海域海水中的
DIN和DIP浓度
比目标海域背景值高
50%以上
冬季目标海域海水中的
DIN和DIP比值
≥25
营养盐富集
直接效应
海水富营养
化初级特征
目标海域海水中Chl-a浓度
最大值和平均值
比目标海域背景值高
50%以上
目标海域海洋浮游
植物优势种
生物量增加、持续期延长
目标海域大型藻类等 从长期优势种演变为短
期优势种或有害种
营养盐富集
间接效应
海水富营养
化次级特征
目标海域海水缺氧程度 DO<2 mg/L为急性危害
DO=4~5 mg/L为危害/缺乏
DO=5~6 mg/L为不足
目标海域海水中有机碳/
有机物浓度变化
浓度增加
(适用于沉积群落)
海水富营养
化长期环境
生态效应
目标海域底栖动物 生物量、种类组成出现
显著的长期变化
目标海域鱼类 主要由于缺氧和/或
有毒藻类导致死亡
营养盐富集的衍生效应 藻类毒素贻贝传染事件等
表2  海水富营养化综合评价指示因子的评价标准(据参考文献[50,51] 修改)
评价项 指示因子 环境要素 评价要点
压力 直接原因 陆源DIN排放 陆源排放淡水中DIN浓度
直接结果 目标海域中DIN浓度 目标海域河口混合区、
海水区中DIN浓度
状态 初级症状 Chl-a 含量、范围、频率
大型藻类 存在问题、频率
附生植物 存在问题、频率
次级症状 缺氧状况 溶解氧浓度、范围、频率
水下植被 存在问题、覆盖度损失量
有害赤潮 发生状况、持续时间、频率
有毒赤潮 发生状况、持续时间、频率
响应趋势 水动力敏感度 稀释能力 分层状况、稀释容量
冲刷能力 潮差、陆源淡水输入
陆源DIN排放 未来变化趋势
表3  河口富营养化评价因子、环境要素和评价要点(据参考文献[51,52]修改)
富营养化评价项 富营养化评价因子 富营养化比例
营养盐富集因子 溶解态无机氮(DIN) ER = ES/ET正相关
(富营养化评价因子状态/特
定因子当年的目标值)
溶解态无机磷(DIP)
直接效应 叶绿素a(Chl-a)
透明度(SD) ER = ET/ES负相关
(特定因子当年的目标值/富
营养化评价因子状态)
间接效应 氧负债(OD)
底栖无脊椎动物(BI)
表4  HELCOM方法的评价指标集合富营养化目标和富营养化比例[58]
富营养化比例ER 状态 分类 变化范围
0.0≤ER≤0.5 没有受到富营养化的影响 与背景值相比没有明显变化
0.5≤ER≤1.0 略低于目标值
1.0≤ER≤1.5 受富营养化影响 略高于目标值
1.5≤ER≤2.0 大部分高于目标值
ER≥2.0 显著高于目标值
表5  富营养化比例对应的营养状态、富营养化分类和变化范围[58]
不同点 综合评价法 河口富营养化评价法 波罗的海行动计划
评价区域的侧重点 侧重于沿岸海域 侧重于河口系统 侧重于波罗的海海域
评价因子的侧重点 给予致害因素(即营养盐浓度、比值及输入通量)与症状(直接和间接效应)相同的权重 给予症状较大权重(初级症状和次级症状)。压力评价只考察人为的溶解态无机氮(DIN)浓度比率而未及其他 给予致害因素(即营养盐浓度、比值及输入通量)与症状(直接和间接效应)相同的权重
评价原则 使用“一损俱损”原则,即各类别的分级和最终的定级取决于其中最差级别 适用3类(压力—状态—响应)分值的加权综合定级 使用“一损俱损”原则,但最后会对评价可信度进行验证
评价标准的参考值 使用区域专属的背景值做为评价的标准,即不同的区域分别有不同的背景值 使用统一的评价标准 使用统一的评价标准
表6  第二代海水富营养化评价方法差异表(据参考文献[52,58] 修改)
图1  应用模糊数学法对不同季节长江口的富营养化评价[42]
图2  应用第二代富营养化评价方法对长江口和杭州湾的富营养化评价[65]
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