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地球科学进展  2018, Vol. 33 Issue (4): 361-372    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.04.0361
综述与评述     
盐胁迫对植物的影响及AMF提高植物耐盐性的机制
潘晶1,2(), 黄翠华1, 罗君1,2, 彭飞1, 薛娴1
1.中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院 沙漠与沙漠化重点实验室/民勤盐渍化研究站, 甘肃 兰州 730000
2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
Effects of Salt Stress on Plant and the Mechanism of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Enhancing Salt Tolerance of Plants
Jing Pan1,2(), Cuihua Huang1, Jun Luo1,2, Fei Peng1, Xian Xue1
1.Minqin Salinization Research Station,Key Laboratory of Desert and Desertification, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
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摘要:

土壤盐渍化是在特定的自然和人类活动共同作用下产生的全球性土壤退化问题。丛枝菌根真菌(AMF)作为一种有益土壤微生物,在盐渍土壤中数量繁多、种类丰富,且能够与植物根系形成互惠共生体——丛枝菌根,从而提高植物耐盐性,进而改良盐渍土。在分析盐胁迫对植物影响机制的基础上,总结了AMF提高植物耐盐性的相关机制:①通过重建植物体内离子平衡,缓解盐离子毒害和改善植物体内营养平衡;②通过扩大植物根系吸收范围和提高渗透调节能力,缓解植物体内水分亏缺;③通过激活植物抗氧保护体系,抵抗氧化胁迫对植物造成的损伤,从而保护植物细胞膜系统和光合系统的完整性,提高植物耐盐性。最后,提出了AMF改善土壤盐渍化研究的不足与亟需解决的科学问题,以期为我国西北干旱区盐渍土的改良和土地生产力的提高提供理论指导,服务于国家建设“西部生态屏障”和“丝绸之路经济带”战略目标的实施。

关键词: 盐胁迫丛枝菌根真菌植物耐盐性    
Abstract:

Soil salinization is one of the global land degradation problems due to the impacts of climatic variations and human activities. As a beneficial soil microorganism, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are abundant in saline-alkaline land and form a mutual symbiosis with plants, which can improve salt tolerance of plant and reduce salt stress from the soil. Based on the mechanism of salt stress on the plant, the effects of AMF on plant physiological characteristics were introduced. Three main aspects of the AMF effects were summarized as follows: reconstructing the ion balance in plants to alleviate the toxic effects of specific ions; expanding the absorption range of plant roots and improving the osmotic regulation ability to alleviate the water deficit in plant; maintaining the integrity of cell membrane system and photosynthetic system to resist the damage caused by oxidative stress. Also, the future research direction in this field was evaluated, then a reference for the reconstruction of the saline-alkaline environment was provided.

Key words: Salt stress    Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi    Salt tolerant.
收稿日期: 2017-10-30 出版日期: 2018-05-24
ZTFLH:  P935.1  
基金资助: *中国科学院院地合作项目“利用黑果枸杞/利用盐碱地的试验研究及示范推广”(编号:43800312-6);国家重点研发计划项目“中国北方半干旱荒漠区沙漠化防治关键技术与示范”(编号:2016YFC0500909)资助.
作者简介:

作者简介:潘晶(1988-),女,甘肃民勤人,博士研究生,主要从事退化土地改良研究.E-mail:panjing@lzb.ac.cn

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引用本文:

潘晶, 黄翠华, 罗君, 彭飞, 薛娴. 盐胁迫对植物的影响及AMF提高植物耐盐性的机制[J]. 地球科学进展, 2018, 33(4): 361-372.

Jing Pan, Cuihua Huang, Jun Luo, Fei Peng, Xian Xue. Effects of Salt Stress on Plant and the Mechanism of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Enhancing Salt Tolerance of Plants. Advances in Earth Science, 2018, 33(4): 361-372.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.04.0361        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V33/I4/361

图1  盐胁迫对植物的不良影响
供试植物 真菌类型 接种效应 参考文献

番茄
Glomus geosporum+
Glomus intraradices
Le NHX1 ○
Le NHX2 ○
[40]
Glomus mosseae Le NHX1 ↓ [39]
表1  AMF对植物Na+/H+ 逆向转运蛋白基因影响的部分实验结果
图2  AMF对植物根系形态各指标的权重响应比空心圆圈代表响应比,误差线代表95%的置信区间;误差线没有跨越零线表示处理与对照存在显著差异;若响应比为正,则说明盐胁迫下AMF可促进植物根系生长;反之亦然
供试植物 真菌类型 接种效应 植物水分状态 参考文献
番茄 Glomus geosporum +Glomus intraradices Le PIP1
Le PIP2
Le TIP


[40]
Glomus mosseae Le AQP2
Le PIP1
Le PIP2
Le TRAMP
Le TIP




相对含水量(RWC) ↑
叶片水势(Ψw) ↑
根系水导 (Lpr)升高 ↑
[71]
菜豆 Glomus intraradices PvPIP1;1
PvPIP1;2
PvPIP1;3
PvPIP2;1



相对水含量(RWC) ↑
自由渗出流(Jv) ↑
根系水导 (Lpr)升高 ↑
[69]
生菜 Glomus intraradices LsPIP1
LsPIP2

相对水含量(RWC) ↑ [70]
表2  AMF对植物AQPS影响的部分实验结果
图3  AMF提高植物耐盐性的机制
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