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地球科学进展  2014, Vol. 29 Issue (5): 617-623    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2014.05.0617
生态学研究     
中美城市生态系统长期监测的内容和方法
王效科, 欧阳志云, 任玉芬, 张红星
北京城市生态系统研究站,城市与区域生态国家重点实验室,中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 北京 100085
The Monitoring System for Long-term Urban Ecosystem Study in USA and China
Wang Xiaoke, Ouyang Zhiyun, Ren Yufen, Zhang Hongxing
Beijing Urban Ecosystem Research Station, State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecosystems, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100085
 全文: PDF(923 KB)   HTML
摘要:

长期监测是研究生态系统演变规律的基本方法。针对自然和半自然生态系统的长期监测工作已经比较完善,但以人类活动为主的城市生态系统的研究和监测工作国内外都还处于探索阶段。针对城市生态系统长期监测的需要,在介绍美国巴尔的摩和凤凰城城市生态系统长期研究监测工作的基础上,结合北京城市生态系统研究站的长期监测工作实践,分析了城市生态系统的基本特点,提出了城市生态系统长期监测的3个目的(为研究长期演变、为探索人与自然相互作用和为城市居民提供数据)、5个原则(综合与重点相结合原则、综合性和前瞻性原则、与城市相关部门监测融合原则、面向科学研究原则和长期一致性原则)、4项内容(生态要素、生态格局、生态过程和生态系统功能)和4种方法(遥感监测、长期调查样地监测、定位观测站监测和社会经济调查监测),将为我国开展长期城市生态系统监测和研究工作提供重要科学方法指导。

关键词: 城市生态系统长期生态监测美国城市生态站北京城市生态站城市生态监测    
Abstract:

Long-term monitoring is the essential method to investigate changes in ecological systems. The long-term monitoring of natural and semi-natural ecosystems has been practiced for several decades and its protocols have been accomplished. However, it is underdeveloped for the Long-Term Monitoring of Urban Ecosystem (LTMUE) that was dominated by human activities. For improving long-term monitoring of urban ecosystem, this paper will introduce the long-term monitoring practices carrying on in Baltimore and Phoenix long-term urban ecosystem studies in USA. Then, in terms of experiences of a decade monitoring practiced in Beijing Urban Ecosystem Research Station and the general characteristics of urban ecosystem, we analyzed the objectives, principles, contents and methods of LTMUE The objectives of LTMUE are to provide databases for scientists to investigate long-term changes in urban ecosystems, and study the interaction between human and nature, and for decision makers and residents to know and predict the changes that happened in urban ecosystems. In design of LTMUE, the five principles should be considered: Reasonably balancing comprehensive and key indicators monitored, focusing comprehensive and foresight indictors, infusing data government monitored, science-oriented monitoring and long-term consistence. The LTMUE includes ecological elements, pattern, processes and function monitoring. The mostly deployed methods are remote sensing, long-term plots, substation and social survey. This will be the important methodology to guide long-term urban ecosystem investigations in China.

Key words: Beijing urban ecosystem research station.    Long term ecological monitoring    Urban ecosystem    Urban ecosystem monitoring    Urban ecosystem program in USA
出版日期: 2014-05-10
:  P96  
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目“北京城市生态系统格局和过程演变的驱动机制与调控机理”(编号:41030744); 国家科技支撑计划项目“城市生态社区运行优化设计及管理技术与示范”(编号:2012BAC13B04)资助

作者简介: 王效科(1964-),男,陕西岐山人,研究员,主要从事陆地生态系统碳氮循环和城市生态系统研究. E-mail:wangxk@rcees.ac.cn
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引用本文:

王效科, 欧阳志云, 任玉芬, 张红星. 中美城市生态系统长期监测的内容和方法[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(5): 617-623.

Wang Xiaoke, Ouyang Zhiyun, Ren Yufen, Zhang Hongxing. The Monitoring System for Long-term Urban Ecosystem Study in USA and China. Advances in Earth Science, 2014, 29(5): 617-623.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2014.05.0617        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2014/V29/I5/617

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