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地球科学进展  2007, Vol. 22 Issue (6): 583-591    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2007.06.0583
综述与评述     
潮间带盐沼植物对海岸沉积动力过程影响的研究进展
李 华,杨世伦
华东师范大学河口海岸学国家重点实验室,上海 200062
A Review of Influences of Saltmarsh Vegetation on Physical Processes in Intertidal Wetlands 
LI Hua, YANG Shi-lun
State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research East China Normal University,Shanghai 200062,China
 全文: PDF(3046 KB)  
摘要:

根据已有文献归纳出盐沼植物对水动力、悬沙运动、沉积、地貌影响研究已取得的进展,包括:①单位距离盐沼中波能的损失可为相邻光滩的数倍至数十倍;波浪传入互花米草盐沼20~30 m后,波能可全部损失;②盐沼植物可使潮流流速降低一个数量级;当植冠被淹没后,垂向流速剖面在植冠附近出现转折;③当植冠被淹没后,垂向上植冠层内的紊动强度趋于一致且明显低于植冠层以上;互花米草盐沼中的紊动强度可比相邻光滩低1~2个数量级;④盐沼植物通过2种机制影响悬沙的运动:其一是降低水体紊动,从而促进悬沙的沉降并遏制滩面沉积物再悬浮;其二是茎叶对悬沙的直接黏附。这两种机制可使盐沼中的悬沙浓度比相邻光滩低一半以上;⑤植物对细颗粒悬沙的促淤作用导致盐沼中的底床滩面沉积物细化;⑥盐沼中的垂向沉积速率可比光滩高7~8倍;盐沼中波痕和侵蚀坑等微地貌不易发育,滩面平整化;与光滩上频繁发生的冲淤交替相比,盐沼中通常只淤不冲,滩面稳定性较高;⑦植物对上述沉积动力过程的影响程度与植物的高度、密度、盖度等生态参数密切相关,因此,不同的植物种类对沉积动力过程的影响往往存在显著差异。在此基础上,展望了今后该领域研究进一步加强的几个方面。

关键词: 潮间带盐沼植物波浪潮流沉积地貌海岸湿地    
Abstract:

Based on the present documents, this article reviews some progress made through studying the influence by vegetables in the salt mash on hydrodynamics, sediment transport, sedimentation and geography. The progress includes: (1) the loss of wave energy in salt mash per unit distance is several times to dozens of times that in adjacent tidal flat; besides, all the wave energy may disappear when the wave is transmitted 20~30 meters into Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. (2) the vegetables in salt mash can cause the tidal flow to decrease one order of magnitude; when the plant canopy is drowned, there is a reversal of flow velocity gradient over the canopy. (3) when the plant canopy is drowned, the turbulence intensity along depth in canopy tends to be uniformly distributed and obviously lower than that above the plant canopy; the turbulence intensity in Spartina alterniflora salt mash is lower one to two orders of magnitude than that of adjacent tidal flat. (4) the vegetation affects the sediment transport through two mechanisms, one of which is to reduce turbulence intensity of water, which promotes the sedimentation of suspend sediment and stop the surface sediments to re-suspension; the other one is the direct trap sediments by stem and leave of vegetation. The two mechanisms can reduce the concentration of suspend sediment in salt mash to half or even less as much as that in adjacent tidal flat. (5) the accretion promotion of vegetation to fine sediments leads to refining of bed sediments in salt mash. (6) the vertical sedimentation rate in salt mash is seven to eight times that in adjacent tidal flat; the difficult growth of micro-geomorphology such as ripple marks and corrosion craters in salt mash tends to form evenness in salt marsh; Compared to frequent alternation of erosion and accretion in tidal flat, the salt mash usually accretes more than erosion, which forms relatively high stability in bed . (7) the influence of the vegetation on the above-mentioned sedimentation dynamics is closely related with such ecological parameters as height, density and coverage. Therefore, different plant species influence the process of sedimentation dynamics differently. Based on the above analysis, the authors presents the outlook of several aspects that need further study in the future.

Key words: Salt marsh    Vegetation    Wave    Tidal flow    Sedimentation    Geomorphology    Coastal wetland.    Intertidal zone
收稿日期: 2007-01-08 出版日期: 2007-06-10
:  P737. 1  
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目“潮间带大型植物对沉积动力过程影响的研究”(编号:40671017);国家“973”中荷战略科学联盟计划项目“河口海岸生物与非生物过程的相互作用”(编号:2004CB720505);教育部长江学者和创新团队发展计划项目“高浊度边缘海的生物地球化学过程”(编号:PCSIRT0427)资助.

通讯作者: 杨世伦(1954-),男,四川乐山人,教授,主要从事河口海岸沉积动力过程研究.E-mail:slyang@sklec.ecnu.edu.cn     E-mail: slyang@sklec.ecnu.edu.cn
作者简介: 李华(1977-),女,黑龙江哈尔滨人,博士研究生,主要从事海岸环境研究.E-mail: pillarhuar@126.com
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引用本文:

李 华,杨世伦. 潮间带盐沼植物对海岸沉积动力过程影响的研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2007, 22(6): 583-591.

LI Hua, YANG Shi-lun . A Review of Influences of Saltmarsh Vegetation on Physical Processes in Intertidal Wetlands . Advances in Earth Science, 2007, 22(6): 583-591.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2007.06.0583        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2007/V22/I6/583

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