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地球科学进展  2021, Vol. 36 Issue (7): 663-670    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2021.067
综述与评述     
远喷口型SEDEX铅锌矿床最新研究进展及发展趋势
孙华山(),杨辉
中国地质大学(武汉)资源学院,湖北 武汉 430074
Advance and Trend of the Vent-Distal SEDEX Lead-Zinc Deposits
Huashan SUN(),Hui YANG
School of Earth Resources,China University of Geosciences (Wuhan),Wuhan 430074,China
 全文: PDF(3607 KB)   RICH HTML
摘要:

远喷口型SEDEX矿床是全球铅锌矿产的主要来源,但是,长期以来有关其成因及判别的标志一直存在争议。最近全球几个典型的此类铅锌矿床成矿研究取得了一些重要进展:海底喷流沉积作用不是该类矿床成矿的唯一方式,纹层状矿化也不是其成因的直接诊断标志;与传统上认为该类矿床一般形成于封闭、还原的海底低洼沉积环境不同,远喷口型SEDEX矿床赋矿围岩可以形成于开放、氧化沉积环境;甲烷厌氧氧化作用和海底热液交代作用可能是该类矿床纹层状、条带状矿化形成的主要机制。这些认识不仅对该类矿床传统成因模式提出了挑战,而且也将引起传统找矿勘查评价准则的改变。因此,借鉴已有研究经验,加强该类矿床成矿研究是当前矿床学的迫切任务之一。

关键词: 远喷口型SEDEX矿床诊断标志沉积环境成矿机制    
Abstract:

Vent-distal Sedimentary-Exhalative(SEDEX)ore deposits are the main source of lead-zinc minerals worldwide,however,their genesis and diagnostic marks are yet controversial. Recently,some important discoveries have been made in the study of typical vent-distal SEDEX ore deposits in the world, including: Submarine exhalative sedimentation is not the unique way of mineralization, and laminated mineralization is not an exclusive diagnostic signature of the genesis of such deposits; Contrary to the traditional view given that vent-distal SEDEX deposits are generally formed in a closed,reduced and down-warped submarine sedimentary environment,the host rocks of these deposits can be formed in an open and oxidized sedimentary environment; Methane anaerobic oxidation and submarine hydrothermal alteration may be the main mechanisms for the formation of laminated and layered mineralization of this type of deposits. These understandings not only challenge the traditional genetic model of SEDEX deposits but also lead to the change of traditional prospecting and exploration evaluation criteria. Therefore,it is one of the urgent tasks to strengthen metallogenic research of this type of deposits learnt from the existing research experiences.

Key words: Vent-distal SEDEX deposit    Diagnostic signature    Sedimentary environment    Mineralized mechanism
收稿日期: 2021-05-06 出版日期: 2021-08-20
ZTFLH:  P618.4  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金面上项目“青海省锡铁山SEDEX型铅锌矿床成矿构造背景及关键成矿控制”(41172087)
作者简介: 孙华山(1969-),男,河北承德人,副教授,主要从事矿产勘查与评价教学与研究工作. E-mail: sunhsh@cug.edu.cn
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引用本文:

孙华山,杨辉. 远喷口型SEDEX铅锌矿床最新研究进展及发展趋势[J]. 地球科学进展, 2021, 36(7): 663-670.

Huashan SUN,Hui YANG. Advance and Trend of the Vent-Distal SEDEX Lead-Zinc Deposits. Advances in Earth Science, 2021, 36(7): 663-670.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2021.067        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2021/V36/I7/663

图1  SEDEX型Pb-Zn矿床成因模式对比[7](a)近喷口型成因模式;(b)远喷口型成因模式;(a)和(b)成因模式中成矿均受海底喷流沉积作用及封闭、还原沉积环境控制;(c)热液交代成因模式,成矿受压实成岩地层热液交代作用控制,沉积环境为开放、氧化环境
图2  海底硫酸盐—甲烷过渡带(a)及甲烷厌氧氧化作用(b)示意图[29](a)上部硫酸盐还原带,下部甲烷带,二者之间为硫酸盐—甲烷过渡带;(b)粗黑色箭头代表上部SO42-向下渗透,下部CH4向上渗透,二者渗透过程中出现甲烷厌氧氧化作用(AOM)及主要化学反应。此外,深部有机质分解形成的甲烷越向上δ13C越亏损,相反,硫酸盐还原形成的硫化物越向上δ34S越富集
图3  加拿大Selwyn盆地SEDEX型Pb-Zn矿床赋矿DLK组地层有机碳含量、黄铁矿δ34S组成和自生碳酸盐矿物δ13C组成与层位变化关系图[22]
图4  交代作用对溶液pH值改变及其对硫化物沉淀顺序影响的热动力学模拟图解[14](a)黄铁矿稳定域pH值变化范围3~9;(b)闪锌矿稳定域pH值变化范围5~11; SEDEX型Pb-Zn矿床一般黄铁矿形成早于闪锌矿,闪锌矿形成与交代作用导致的溶液pH值升高有关
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