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地球科学进展  2020, Vol. 35 Issue (7): 661-677    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2020.055
综述与评述     
火星独特风沙地貌之横向沙脊
董治宝(),吕萍,李超,胡光印
陕西师范大学行星风沙科学研究院, 陕西 西安 710119
Unique Aeolian Bedforms of Mars: Transverse Aeolian Ridges
Zhibao Dong(),Lü Ping,Chao Li,Guangyin Hu
Planetary Aeolian Research Institute, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119, China
 全文: PDF(9391 KB)   RICH HTML
摘要:

横向沙脊是火星独特风沙地貌类型之一,近20年来研究者们借助高分辨率火星遥感探测资料开展了系列研究。总结了横向沙脊的分布规律、形态特征、沉积物组成、形成过程及其形成时代等方面的研究成果。火星横向沙脊是高度为米级,间距为10 m级的风成床面形态类型,主要分布于赤道和低纬度地区,而且南半球较北半球多。高反照率和对称的截面形态是其突出的特征,与地球上的巨型沙波纹和反向沙丘的截面形态类似。横向沙脊沉积物粒度组成一般具有双峰型特征,表层为粗沙覆盖,但热惯性较低。目前关于横向沙脊的形成过程有3种假说:巨型沙波纹假说、反向沙丘假说和粉尘胶结假说,但支持巨型沙波纹假说的证据最多。火星横向沙脊与沙丘一样,属于新近的火星地貌类型,但其形成时间一般较沙丘早,多形成于近几百万年以来,所以常被胶结或岩化,不具流动性,但也有少数现代时期形成的活动性横向沙脊。横向沙脊的独特性使其成为最令人困惑的火星风沙地貌类型之一,以至于研究者们对其在风沙地貌分类系统中的归属尚有争议。针对横向沙脊研究的需要,未来火星探测亟需提供两个方面的高分辨率遥感信息,即横向沙脊沉积物组成和若干区域的综合集成勘测。

关键词: 火星风沙地貌横向沙脊风沙地貌形态学形成假说    
Abstract:

Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs) are among the unique aeolian bedforms of Mars, which witnessed a series of investigation for the last two decades thanks to the high-resolution remote sensing data. This paper summarized the understanding with respect to distribution, morphology, sedimentology, formation hypotheses and formation time of TARs. It is suggested that TARs are a kind of aeolian bedforms with meter-scale height and decameter-scale wavelength. TARs are primarily distributed in the equator and low-latitude regions, being rare in high and mid-latitude regions, and more popular in the south hemisphere than in the north hemisphere. Higher albedo and symmetric cross-sections are the most outstanding features of TARs, being analogous to the megaripples and reversing dunes on the Earth. The grain-size distribution of TARs’ sediments is generally bimodal, with granule cover and low thermal inertia. Three formation hypotheses were proposed for TARs: Megaripple hypothesis, reversing dune hypothesis and dust induration hypothesis, with more evidences supporting the megaripple hypothesis. Similar to dunes, TARs are geologically recent morphology on Mars, but generally predate dunes, formed in the last few million years so that most TARs are indurated or lithified and are immobile. However, contemporary mobileTARs are also developed in some regions. The unique features of TARs make them the mostenigmatic aeolian bedforms of Mars. It is proposed that high-resolution information on TARs sedimentology and integrated regional surveying should be listed in the priorities of future Mars exploration with respect to TARs study.

Key words: Martian aeolian geomorphology    Transverse aeolian ridges    Morphology of aeolian bedforms    Formation hypotheses
收稿日期: 2020-05-16 出版日期: 2020-08-21
ZTFLH:  P931.3  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目“塔里木盆地周围干燥剥蚀山地风化速率研究”(41930641);“沙丘动力学数值模型时间与空间尺度的确定”(41871011)
作者简介: 董治宝(1966-),男,陕西横山人,教授,主要从事风沙物理研究. E-mail: zbdong@snnu.edu.cn
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董治宝,吕萍,李超,胡光印. 火星独特风沙地貌之横向沙脊[J]. 地球科学进展, 2020, 35(7): 661-677.

Zhibao Dong,Lü Ping,Chao Li,Guangyin Hu. Unique Aeolian Bedforms of Mars: Transverse Aeolian Ridges. Advances in Earth Science, 2020, 35(7): 661-677.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2020.055        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2020/V35/I7/661

图1  风积地貌的 3种尺度类型(据参考文献[ 13]修改)(a)风积地貌间距面积频率N=d p/dlog λ;(b)组成物质的颗粒粒径(粗粒累计百分比20%所对应的颗粒直径)—间距散点图;A:沙波纹;B:沙丘;C:沙山
图2  火星萨瑞南高地( Terra Sirenum)的典型横向沙脊(据参考文献[ 24]修改)λ、 W、 L分别为横向沙脊波长、宽度及其长度;HiRISE影像 PSP_001684_1410,中心点位置:38.9°S, 196.0°E;来源:NASA/JPL/U of A
图3  火星 Gamboa陨击坑中央峰南—东南地段展示的横向沙脊( T)与沙丘( D)、巨型沙波纹( M)以及大沙波纹( R)之间的关系(据参考文献[ 11]修改)HiRISE影像:PSP_002721_2210;来源:NASA/JPL/U of A
图4  火星 Ius Chasma谷底横向沙脊截面图(据参考文献[ 32, 38]修改)A和E为横向沙脊底部的两点, C为顶点, B和D是顶点附近的两点
图5  5种横向沙丘顶部脊线形状(据参考文献[ 24]修改)(a)简单型(中心点位置:21.3°N, 39.3°E; MOC NA M1104208);(b)分叉型(中心点位置:20.7°N, 41.3°E; MOC NA M0303703);(c)蜿蜒型(中心点位置:45.5°S, 28.7°E; MOC NA R0802177);(d)新月型(中心点位置:0.2°N, 0.1°E; MOC NA M1800277);(e)格网型(中心点位置:0.1°S, 5.3°E; MOC NA R2300801); 来源:NASA/JPL/MSSS
图6  地形影响横向沙脊的 4种类型(据参考文献[ 24]修改)(a)围限型(中心点位置:0.4°N, 5.4°E; MOC NA S0100833);(b)控制型(中心点位置:25.9°N, 10.4°E; MOC NA E1601902); (c)影响型(中心点位置:23.2°N, 7.2°E; MOC NA M1200437); (d)独立型(中心点位置:42.7°N, 43.9°E; MOC NA M1003676); 来源:NASA/JPL/MSSS
图7  火星 90°N~90°S和 180°~240°E地带横向沙脊影像所占百分比的纬向变化(据参考文献[ 26]修改)
图8  火星 90°N~90°S和 180°~240°E地带不同海拔高度横向沙脊影像百分比及其数量(据参考文献[ 26]修改)
图9  火星 90°N~90°S和 180°~240°E地带不同地貌单元横向沙脊影像所占百分比(据参考文献[ 26]修改)
图10  利比亚环绕瓦乌纳穆斯陨击坑的巨型沙波纹 [ 53]
图11  布鲁诺沙地反向沙丘截面特征(据参考文献[ 56]修改)括号中的数字为每种沙丘特征宽度,单位:m
图12  火星归—化风沙床面形态截面特征(据参考文献[ 60]修改)
图13  火星横向沙脊形态几何参数相对频率分布直方图(据参考文献[ 35]修改)(a)长度;(b)宽度;(c)高度;(d)间距;(e)对称系数;(f)累计概率曲线
图14  火星横向沙脊的高度与宽度与地球巨型沙波纹和反向沙丘的对比(据参考文献[ 64]修改)
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