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地球科学进展  2006, Vol. 21 Issue (2): 161-169    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2006.02.0161
“土地利用/覆盖变化与综合减灾”专辑     
中国旱灾农业承灾体脆弱性诊断与评价
王静爱1,2, 苏 筠1, 商彦蕊3, 洪世奇4, 王志强2,4,刘 珍1
1.北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院,北京 100875;2.北京师范大学区域地理研究重点实验室,北京 100875;3.河北师范大学资源与环境科学学院,河北 石家庄 050016; 4.北京师范大学资源学院灾害与公共安全研究所,北京 100875
Vulnerability Identification and Assessment of Agriculture Drought Disaster in China
Wang Jing'ai1,2,Su Yun1,Shang Yanrui3,Hong Shiqi4,Wang Zhiqiang2,4,Liu Zhen1
1.College of Geography & Remote Sensing Science, BNU, Beijing 100875, China; 2.Key Laboratory of Regional Geography, BNU, Beijing 100875, China; 3.College of Resources and Environment Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, China; 4.Institute of Disaster and Public Security,College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
 全文: PDF(263 KB)  
摘要:

旱灾是世界上影响面最广、造成农业损失最大的自然灾害类型,世界近一半的国家干旱严重。中国旱灾频繁,每年旱灾损失占各种自然灾害损失的15%以上,随着人口和农业的快速发展,农业承灾体脆弱性对灾情的放大也在增加。基于灾害系统理论,从致灾因子和耕地承灾体的区域组合角度,在旱灾频发高值区,选择雨养农业、灌溉农业和水田农业为主要承灾体类型,构建了农业旱灾脆弱性生产压力和生活压力,灾前—灾中易损性和灾中—灾后适应性等农业旱灾承灾体脆弱性诊断指标体系。提出脆弱性评价的区域模型,即:雨养农业的易损—适应模型(兴和)、灌溉农业的生产—生活压力模型(邢台)和水田农业的需水—灌水模型(鼎城)。基于农业承灾体脆弱性评价,提出制定适应降水变化的波动土地利用结构调整区域政策、建立农业生态—生产范式、建立“水银行”管理机制、建立用水效益和开源节流的评估体系以及加强“截水—抽水—控水”为一体的灌溉系统工程建设,提高灌溉应急能力等对策,以期为农业旱灾的防御和区域粮食安全决策提供科学依据。

关键词: 脆弱性雨养农业灌溉农业水田农业可持续发展粮食安全旱灾中国    
Abstract:

Based on regional combination of the hazard-formation factors and hazard-affected bodies, distributing disciplinarian of the agriculture hazard-affected bodies and the centers of drought disaster in China are found. According to the primary style of hazard-affected bodies, such as the rainfed field (Xinghe County), the irrigated field (Xingtai County) & the paddy field (Dingcheng County), this paper sets up vulnerability identification index system of agriculture drought disaster; establishes regional assessment model of agriculture drought vulnerability, such as the frangibility-adaptability model of the rainfed field, the production-living pressure model of the irrigated field and the water demand-supply model of the paddy field. Taking Xinghe County as a case, agriculture drought vulnerability assessment is also carried. The formation of hazard-affected bodies vulnerability and regional sustainable development is discussed, and some scientific advices for the defense of agriculture drought disaster and disaster mitigation are put forward.

Key words: Vulnerability    Rain-fed agriculture    Irrigated agriculture    Paddy agriculture    Sustainable development    Drought disaster in China.
收稿日期: 2005-12-20 出版日期: 2006-02-15
:  X820.4  
基金资助:

NKBRSF-2006CB400505, Supported by NSFC-40271005, National “985 Project”: Public Security Policy Platform of BNU

通讯作者: Wang Jing'ai     E-mail: sqq@bnu.edu.cn
作者简介: Wang Jing'ai(1955-), female, Manchu,Professor, PhD supervisor,Major Research Fields: regional land use, natural disaster, land degradation. E-mail:sqq@bnu.edu.cn
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引用本文:

王静爱,苏筠,商彦蕊,洪世奇,王志强,刘珍. 中国旱灾农业承灾体脆弱性诊断与评价[J]. 地球科学进展, 2006, 21(2): 161-169.

Wang Jing'ai,Su Yun,Shang Yanrui,Hong Shiqi,Wang Zhiqiang,Liu Zhen. Vulnerability Identification and Assessment of Agriculture Drought Disaster in China. Advances in Earth Science, 2006, 21(2): 161-169.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2006.02.0161        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2006/V21/I2/161

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