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地球科学进展  2005, Vol. 20 Issue (1): 11-018    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2005.01.0011
    
深海底生物多样性与基因资源管理问题
金建才
中华人民共和国常驻国际海底管理局代表处,牙买加 金斯敦
Management of Biobogical Diversity and Genetic Resources in the Deep Seabed Beyond National Jurisdiction
JIN Jiancai
The Permanent Mission of PRC to International Seabed Authority, Kingston Jamaica
 全文: PDF(155 KB)  
摘要:

20世纪海洋科学重大成果之一是伴随着深海科学研究、技术发展及海底矿产资源的勘查进程,发现并明确了深海底极端环境下的生物多样性。深海底生物多样性和基因资源管理问题已引起国际社会的广泛关注,也促使国际海底管理局①对正在制定的多金属硫化物和富钴结壳勘探规章提出更为严格的环境监测和评价的要求。介绍了深海底环境及人类可能影响这一环境的有关活动;现有国际法律的适用性和国际社会正在采取的措施;我国应对的有关政策与措施。

关键词: 深海底国际海底区域生物多样性深海基因资源国际海底管理局海洋法    
Abstract:

One of the most significant discoveries in marine science during the last century was the determination of biological diversity in the deep seabed. The current knowledge on biodiversity in deep seabed is limited, but has revealed that the mineral resources and the biodiversity co-exist in the same environment. Biological components and diversity may vary in the deep sea basin, the mid-ocean ridges and the seamounts where the polymetallic nodule, the hydrothermal polymetallic sulphide and the cobalt-rich crust have been found respectively. Because the current and foreseen human activities may cause harmful impacts on the environment, as well as the potential conflicts over the utilization of the genetic resources, management of biodiversity and genetic resources in deep seabed beyond national jurisdiction has drawn an increasing attention of the international community. While a new legal regime governing human activities in the said areas may be necessary, the dominating principle, either “high sea freedom” or “common heritage of mankind” is under debate. In spite of this, reaching an agreement on implementing relevant parts of conventions on the Law of the Sea and on Biological Diversity may offer a realistic solution. As creating an acceptable new treaty is time consuming, collaboration and coordination among inter and/or non governmental organizations is very important at current stage, in adopting the relevant principles, rules, regulations and procedures in the said conventions. A code of conduct, being developed and carried out in the international community of scientists is practical and may be used as foundation for the development of legal regime and management mechanism. While the International Seabed Authority itself has been playing an active role in managing biodiversity in deep seabed beyond national jurisdiction, all these concerns and efforts may inspire it to establish more strict rules on activities in prospecting and exploration for the polymetallic sulphide and cobalt-rich crust. In conclusion, the author has made some proposals on this issue for the policy-makers as well as the scientific community in China. 

Key words: Deep sea    Biodiversity    Genetic resource    International Seabed Authority    Law of sea
收稿日期: 2004-10-18 出版日期: 2005-01-25
:  P74  
通讯作者: 金建才     E-mail: jin@comra.org
作者简介: 金建才(1954-),男,浙江海宁人,教授级高工,主要从事深海资源管理与政策研究. E-mail:jin@comra.org
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引用本文:

金建才. 深海底生物多样性与基因资源管理问题[J]. 地球科学进展, 2005, 20(1): 11-018.

JIN Jiancai. Management of Biobogical Diversity and Genetic Resources in the Deep Seabed Beyond National Jurisdiction. Advances in Earth Science, 2005, 20(1): 11-018.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2005.01.0011        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2005/V20/I1/11

[1]Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/8/9/Add.3/Rev.1 Conservation and sustainable use of deep seabed genetic resources beyond national jurisdiction: Study of the relationship between the Convention on Biological Diversity and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Revised note by the Executive Secretary of the Convention on the Biological Diversity. 20 February 2003.[《生物多样性公约》秘书处.保护和可持续利用国家管辖范围以外的深海底基因资源——关于《生物多样性公约》与《联合国海洋法公约》之间关系的研究.2003年2月20日.]
[2]United Nations: General Assembly’s Resolution A/RES/57/141: Oceans and the Law of the Sea, 21 February 2003, para.8, 56, 62.[联合国大会57/141决议, 2003年2月21日,第8、56、62段.]
[3]Untied Nations: A58/95,Report on the work of the United Nations Openended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea, Letter dated 9 June 2003 from the Co-Chairpersons of the Consultative Process addressed to the President of the General Assembly, 26 June 2003, para. 20.[联合国海洋和海洋法问题不限成员名额非正式协商进程第4次会议工作报告 A58/95, 2003年6月26,第20段.]
[4]International Seabed Authority: ISBA/8/A/1, Summary presentations on polymetallic massive sulphide deposits and cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts, 9 May 2002.[国际海底管理局: 多金属块状硫化物矿床和富钴结壳概述, 2002年5月9日.]
[5]International Seabed Authority: Report of Authority’s Preparatory Meeting of Scientists held at its headquarters,11-13 March 2002
[6]Zhou Huaiyang. Interannual Variability of Deep Sea Ecosystem and Environmental Impact Assessment of Potential Seabed Mining-International cooperation proposal to investigate natural and spatial variability in deep ocean ecosystem. Presentation in the Workshop on Prospects for International Collaboration in Marine Environmental Research to Enhance Understanding of the Deep Sea Environment, 29 July to 2 August 2002.[周怀阳.国际海底管理局深海环境研究合作前景研讨会报告.2002年7月29至8月2日.]
[7]International Seabed Authority: Seabed Authority Workshop Maps Project to Model Polymetallic Deposits in North Pacific,May 2003, page 17, also Smith Craig R: Presentation and discussion in the Workshop on the Establishment of a Geological Model of the Polymetallic Nodules in the ClarionClipperton Zone.[国际海底管理局多金属结核地质模型研讨会小结, 2003年5月,第17页.]
[8]Report from the InterRidge Workshop: Management and Conservation of Hydrothermal Vent Ecosystems held at Sidney (Victoria), B.C, Canada, 28-30 September 2000. page 2.
[9]International Seabed Authority: Polymetallic Sulphide, 2003.[国际海底管理局资料:多金属硫化物, 2003.]
[10]International Seabed Authority: ISBA/8/A/1 Summery presentations on polymetallic massive sulphide deposits and cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts, 9 May 2002.[国际海底管理局.ISBA/8/A/1多金属块状硫化物矿床和富钴铁锰结壳概述, 2002年5月.]
[11]International Seabed Authority. ISBA/7/C/2 Consideration relating to the regulation for prospecting and exploration for hydrothermal polymetallic sulphides and cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts in the Area, 29 May 2001, para.8.[国际海底管理局. ISBA/7/C/2有关“区域”多金属硫化物和富钴结壳探矿和勘探规章的审议工作,2001年5月,第8段.]
[12]United Nations. A/58/65 Report of Secretay-General: Ocean and the Law of the Sea, 3 March 2003, para.195.[联合国 A/58/65联合国秘书长有关海洋和海洋法问题的报告第195段, 2003年3月.]
[13]United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Article 192, para.5 of Article 194 and Article 197.[《联合国海洋法公约》第192条、第194条第(5)款和第197条.]
[14]Convention on Biological Diversity: Articles 7(c) and 8(1).[《生物多样性公约》第7条(c)款和第8条(l)款.]
[15]Convention on Biological Diversity: Article 4.[《生物多样性公约》第4条.]
[16]International Seabed Authority: ISBA/7/C/2 Consideration relating to the regulation for prospecting and exploration for hydrothermal polymetallic sulphides and cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts in the Area, 29 May 2001, para. 6 and 7.[国际海底管理局: ISBA/7/C/2有关“区域”多金属硫化物和富钴结壳探矿和勘探规章的审议工作第6、7段, 2001年5月.]

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