地球科学进展 ›› 2017, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (11): 1163 -1173. doi: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2017.11.1163

所属专题: 深海科学研究专刊

冰期出露的巽他陆架:古气候与古生态意义 上一篇    下一篇

巽他区域地质气候环境演变与陆地生物多样性形成与变化
翁成郁( )   
  1. 同济大学海洋地质国家重点实验室, 上海 200092
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-06 修回日期:2017-10-22 出版日期:2017-11-10
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目“南海演变过程中海洋花粉沉积和南海周边地区的环境演变历史”(编号:91028010)和“南海由张裂到关闭演化过程中台湾的第三纪地层、古环境和沉积响应”(编号:91128211)资助

The Influences of Geological History, Climatic Variations and the Environment Changes on the Terrestrial Biodiversity of Sunda Region

Chengyu Weng( )   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology,Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
  • Received:2017-09-06 Revised:2017-10-22 Online:2017-11-10 Published:2018-01-10
  • About author:

    First author:Weng Chengyu(1965-),male, Kunming City, Yunnan Province, Professor. Research areas include quaternary geology, palaeoecology and palaeogeography.E-mail:weng@tongji.edu.cn

  • Supported by:
    Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China “Marine pollen deposit and the environmental changes in the surrounding regions during the development of South China Sea”(No.91028010) and “The responses of the stratigraphy, paleoenvironment and sedimentation to the process of splitting and closure of South China Sea in Taiwan during Tertiary”(No.91128211)

巽他地区位于东南亚热带环境,是世界最主要的三大热带雨林分布区之一,也是世界生物多样性最高的区域之一,同时也是受到物种绝灭威胁最强烈的区域。该区域多样性的形成主要是因其位于温暖湿润的热带、地质历史上位于欧亚板块与印度—澳大利亚板块之间,另外该区域主要为陆架区,被海水分割成分散隔离的众多岛屿,在冰期—间冰期的气候旋回中受到气候与海平面变化的强烈影响加速物种与基因的交流,从而累计大量的物种。在第四纪气候变化时期,温度与海平面变化强烈地影响了物种的分布范围与彼此间的隔离与融合,使得它们的多样性受到较大影响。冰期时海平面的下降使得大面积陆地出露,利于物种的传播与扩展及基因的交流,间冰期时上升的海平面隔离了许多生境,隔离的环境有利于新物种生成,但是绝灭也更容易发生。生物避难所对于物种的存续起着重要作用。而在当前快速气候变暖与人类活动的影响下,避难所显得更加重要,然而,一部分物种虽然可以由此延续,但是大多数物种面临的生存危机可能更大,这是未来该地区生态保护的一大挑战。

Sunda region, located in the tropical region of Southeast Asia, is one of the three main regions of the tropical rainforests with the highest biodiversity in the world, and also the most endangered ranges of species extinction. The high biodiversity in the region was due to several reasons: ①the lucky geographical location in the warm and moist tropics, ②joint zone between the two large tectonic plates Eurasia and India-Australia, ③with abundant of islands separated with different distances. ④In the cycles of glacial-interglacial during the geological history, the variations of the temperature and the fluctuations of the sea level created opportunities for the species interactions and gene mixture, therefore resulting in the formation of new species and contributing more species to the region. In particular, during Quaternary period, the continental shelves exposed repeatedly during the glacial times, and the many islands were often merged into one or a few continuous and large territories, making the gene flows within species easier. During the interglacials, the sea-level rose and the continental shelved were submerged, and the scattered and isolated territories might make the speciation and extinction occurred more frequently. Biological refugia might be important for many species’ survival. Today, with the rapid global warming and intensive human disturbance, the refugia may be more crucial for many species to survive. However, the extinction of many species may be inevitable.

中图分类号: 

图1 世界主要热带雨林的分布
Fig.1 The global distribution of the tropical rainforests
图2 东南亚岛屿分布、大陆架(浅蓝区)范围 [ 27 ]
黑实线为华莱士线,虚线为不同的生物区系分界线
Fig.2 Geographical map of the Southeast Asia, showing the lands (green), continental shelves (light-blue region) [ 27 ]
The black solid line is the Wallace’s Line, dashed lines is the other proposed boundary lines thereafter
图3 过去冰期—间冰期中巽他区域的陆地面积波动模拟结果 [ 49 ]
(a)冰期降温1.4 ℃;(b)降温3 ℃
Fig.3 Simulated oscillations of the land area of Sunda region in the cycles of glacial-interglacials during last one million years for two different scenarios [ 49 ]
(a)Temperature dropped 1.4 ℃;(b)Temperature dropped 3 ℃
图4 避难所面积与绝灭时间的关系示意图 [ 61 ]
图中关系还决定于生物体的个体大小、一代生物生活的时间长短及在食物链中的位置等,所以图中显示了不同斜率的2条线
Fig.4 Conceptual relationship between size of a potential refugium and the time to extinction [ 61 ]
The slope of the line is also determined by body size, generation time and the trophy level, which is represented by two different lines in the figure
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