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地球科学进展  2018, Vol. 33 Issue (5): 506-516    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.05.0506
研究论文     
长江河口区晚新生代以来沉积化学元素分布及物源指示意义
顾家伟()
河南教育学院地理系,河南 郑州 450046
Geochemical Finger Prints on China’s Yangtze River Channelization into the Sea and Its Provenance Implications
Jiawei Gu()
Department of Geography of He’nan Institute of Education, Zhengzhou 450046, China
 全文: PDF(9514 KB)   HTML
摘要:

通过对长江三角洲平原上海浦东机场孔(PD钻孔)沉积物的化学元素分析,结合判别函数和因子分析等手段,探讨了元素富集规律随时间的演变特征,揭示了该区物源的演化过程。研究结果显示,PD钻孔沉积物可以划分为I~V带:I带(上新世—早更新世早期)主要富集Pb,Th,U,Ba,La和Ce等元素,此时长江三角洲逐渐由区域性台地向沉降盆地转变,较封闭的局地物源控制了该区沉积特征;II带(早更新世早期—早更新世中期)中Fe,K,As和Rb含量增高,表明此时长江中游物质加入进来,镇江峡口被切穿;III带(早更新世末期—中更新世)由Ti,V和Cr等主导,这些元素代表了上游峨眉山玄武岩,也表征该区物源进一步扩展至长江上游;IV~V带(中新世末—更新世—全新世)元素特征与III带类似,但以Br高含量为特征,表明此时该区地势进一步降低,并遭受多次海侵。PD钻孔的地球化学资料很好地揭示了在我国东西地势倒转的大背景下古长江溯源侵蚀,逐级切穿峡口的演化历程。结合测年资料,推断长江贯通东流至现今河口地区的时间不晚于1.0~1.2 Ma(III带底部)。

关键词: 化学元素河流贯通上新世—第四纪沉积物长江    
Abstract:

This study investigated sediment source to sink relating the channelization of the Yangtze River into the sea. A sediment borehole (PD) on the river coast, penetrating thick Quaternary sediments, to thin sediments of late Pliocene age until the bedrock recorded a change in sediment provenances through time. Geochemical elements and magneto-stratigraphy helped identify five zones. Zone I (the late Pliocene-the Early Pleistocene), characterized by Pb, Th, U, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Hf, Y, Zr, Nb and Mn, indicated a local sediment provenance. This means that the study area was a localized sub-basin. Zone II (the Early Pleistocene-the mid-stage of Early Pleistocene), with remarkable high Fe, K, As and Rb implied a new sediment provenance joining to the sub-basin from the middle Yangtze reach after the opening of Zhenjiang Gorge. Zone III (the mid-stage of Early Pleistocene-the Middle Pleistocene), featured by Ti, V, Cr, Sr, Sc, Cu, Co, Ni, Mg, Ca, Na and P suggested a further extension of sediment provenance to the upper Yangtze reach, where a large block of the E’mei basalt occurs. This hinted the channelization of the Three Gorges valley linking the upper and middle Yangtze reaches. Zone IV~V (the Middle Pleistocene-the Holocene) showed their geochemical similarity to Zone III. Discrimination ratio f(Cr,Th), f(La) and f(K,La), a new approach developed for tracing sediment provenance, confirmed a basin-wide sediment source through Zone III-V. These together witness a progressive extension of the sediment provenance towards the upper Yangtze reach, corresponding to the long-term tilting effect of the Cenozoic Topographic Reversal of the eastern China continent. The timing of the Yangtze River channelizing into the continental shelf of East Asia appeared at ca. 1.0~1.2 Ma (bottom of Zone III).

Key words: Elemental composition    River channelization    Plio-Quaternary sediments    The Yangtze River.
收稿日期: 2017-11-15 出版日期: 2018-06-13
ZTFLH:  P512.2  
基金资助: *河南省科技攻关重点项目“郑州地铁灰尘重金属污染与人体健康风险评价”(编号:152102310093)资助.
作者简介:

作者简介:顾家伟(1981-),男,江苏宿迁人,副教授,主要从事第四纪地质学研究.E-mail:15939018661@163.com

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顾家伟. 长江河口区晚新生代以来沉积化学元素分布及物源指示意义[J]. 地球科学进展, 2018, 33(5): 506-516.

Jiawei Gu. Geochemical Finger Prints on China’s Yangtze River Channelization into the Sea and Its Provenance Implications. Advances in Earth Science, 2018, 33(5): 506-516.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.05.0506        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V33/I5/506

图1  长江流域地质与地貌概图(a)长江流域源岩分布(据参考文献[3]修改);(b)长江河口区钻孔分布;(c)新生代以来中国现代地貌剖面地形变化;(d)新生代以来中国早第三纪地貌剖面地形变化(据参考文献[4]修改)
图2  长江三峡贯通年代总结 (通过参考文献[1,12,15~40]总结获得)
区域 特征元素 参考文献
上游地区 峨眉山玄武岩 Ti, V, Cr, Sc [23,44]
中游地区 汉江 Fe, As, K [47]
中游扬子克拉 Th, U, REE [23,44]
下游地区 下游扬子克拉通 Th, U, REE [23,44]
表1  长江上游、中游、下游物源判断的特征元素
图3  长江三角洲磁性地层对比图(据参考文献[49]修改) 灰色部分表示钻孔底部较低的磁化率区域
图4  PD钻孔沉积物Q型聚类与化学元素分布(a)包括Ti,V,Cr等元素;(b)包括Th和U等元素和判别函数,所有元素Al归一化处理;垂直虚线为全孔平均值;判别函数粗实线为10点平均;I~V带为TILIA软件聚类分析结果
图5  PD钻孔沉积物特征元素因子分析与样品载荷散点图(a)6个特征元素的因子分析;(b)PD钻孔样品特征元素的载荷散点图
图6  PD钻孔物源演化模式图
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