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地球科学进展  2005, Vol. 20 Issue (9): 980-989    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2005.09.0980
综述与评述     
新一代对地观测系统的发展
王毅
南京大学大气科学系中尺度灾害性天气教育部重点实验室,江苏 南京 210093
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EARTH OBSERVATION SYSTEM
WANG Yi
Key Laboratory of Meso-Scale Serve Weather, MOE, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093,China
 全文: PDF(167 KB)  
摘要:

对地观测系统(EOS,Earth Observation System)是获取空间对地信息、促进地球系统科学和空间信息科学等学科发展的支柱。长期以来,人们就期望着对自己居住的地球有一个全面深刻的了解,研究这种从几十年到几百年时间尺度的全球变化,依赖于观测系统和观测技术的发展。因此有必要建立一个对地球整体的观测系统,利用空间优势,获取有关地球体系及其各个组成部分的详细数据或信息。近50年来,世界对地观测技术得到了迅猛的发展。NASA针对全球变化研究对建立长期的数据采集系统的实际需求,于20世纪80年代初开始规划地球观测系统(EOS)计划,并于90年代初实施。它包括一系列卫星、自然科学知识组成和一个数据系统,支持一系列极地轨道和低倾角卫星对地球的陆地表面、生物圈、大气和海洋进行长期观测。地球观测卫星系列是EOS计划的最基本和最重要的环节。EOS卫星系列计划在今后的10年内陆续发射一系列的太阳轨道环境遥感卫星,构成连续15年的数据采集系统,其规模在地球观测卫星发展史上是空前的。在EOS计划的基础上NASA规划了ESE战略计划,将继续发展国际新一代对地观测系统。迄今为止,Terra、Aqua和Arua卫星已经发射成功,引起地球遥感科学界的瞩目,为地球科学研究提供重要的数据资源。

关键词: 对地观测系统EOSESE地球系统科学卫星传感器    
Abstract:

Earth observation system (EOS) is proved to be the most efficient to yield information about Earth's land, atmosphere, ice, oceans and life that is obtainable in no other way, and ensures the development of earth system science. For a long time, people have expected to understand global changes, which require global-scale observations and models, and many regional and local changes are only truly understood when seen in their global context. Research conducted by the Earth Science Enterprise advances the interdisciplinary field of Earth system science and contributes to NASA's mission to understand and protect our home planet. Earth observing system, using the vantage point of space, is providing an understanding of our home planet that could never be achieved if we were bound to Earth's surface. Based on the last half a century development of the Earth observation techniques and the requirement of data collection in the study of the Earth system science, NASA started to plan the EOS programs at the beginning of the 1980's, and put it in practice at the beginning of the 1990's. EOS programs define a series of satellites, natural science knowledge according to system in the next ten years separately, and the launching of sun-synchronous satellites series is the essential part. The evolution process from the EOS program to the Earth science enterprise (ESE) was presented. ESE answers a series of scientific questions by observing, modeling the processes and controlling the Earth system. The ESE defines the aims of science, application and technology, and arranges different satellite missions according to different science questions. Based on the ESE strategy, the future development of EOS was evaluated. So far, Terra, Aqua and Aura have been launched successfully already, which attract the interest of the remote sensing research. The wealth of Earth system data we provide to government agencies, universities, and private industry allows for better research, exploration, and improvement in essential services such as weather forecasting, seasonal climate prediction, climate change assessment, aviation safety, natural resources management, agricultural management, and infrastructure planning.

Key words: Earth observation system    EOS    ESE    Earth system science    Satellite    Sensor.
收稿日期: 2005-04-12 出版日期: 2005-09-25
:  P228  
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目“热带气旋发生发展的理论研究”(编号:40333024);南京大学博士后基金项目;江苏省教育厅科研基金项目联合资助.

作者简介: 王毅(1975-),女,湖南长沙人,博士研究生,主要从事热带气旋的卫星观测和反演研究. E-mail: wy@nju.edu.cn
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引用本文:

王毅. 新一代对地观测系统的发展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2005, 20(9): 980-989.

WANG Yi. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EARTH OBSERVATION SYSTEM. Advances in Earth Science, 2005, 20(9): 980-989.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2005.09.0980        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2005/V20/I9/980

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