Please wait a minute...
img img
高级检索
地球科学进展  2005, Vol. 20 Issue (7): 786-793    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2005.07.0786
全球变化研究     
南极海冰与气候
康建成1,2,唐述林2,3,刘雷保2
1.上海师范大学地理系,上海 200234;
2.中国极地研究中心,上海 200136;
3.兰州大学资源环境学院,甘肃 兰州 730000
ANTARCTIC SEA ICE AND CLIMATE
KANG Jiancheng1,2;TANG Shulin2,3;LIU Leibao2
1.Geography Department, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234,China;
2.Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai 200136,China;
3.College of Earth and Environment Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000,China
 全文: PDF(140 KB)  
摘要:

在极区,海冰的形成在海洋上部和大气下部之间构成了新的交界面,改变了大洋表面的辐射平衡和能量平衡,隔离了海洋与大气之间的热交换和水汽交换;海冰冻融过程影响着大洋温、盐流的形成和强度;海冰对南大洋和南极大陆气象、气候有重要的影响,在气候环境系统中起着重要的作用。南极海冰作用区约占南半球雪冰作用区面积的58%,约占地球表面积的3.58%。其中,一年生海冰约占南极海冰区分布面积的83%;其分布面积从夏末2月份最小时的3×106 km2左右,到9月份冬末最大时的18×106km2左右,一年中季节变化幅度可达15×106 km2,季节变化率>500%。海冰分布区域的年际变化较大。南极海冰区是影响季节和年际全球气候环境变化的重要区域。当前,国际南极海冰与气候研究的核心问题是海冰物理过程和在海冰区的海洋—大气相互作用。结合目前承担的研究课题,对国际南极海冰与气候研究的前沿动态和相关的国际计划进行了综述。

关键词: 南极海冰气候    
Abstract:

The sea ice frozen on polar ocean forms a new interface between the upper ocean and the lower atmosphere. Sea ice plays an important part in the climate and environment system of Earth through its modifying role in radiative and energy balances, prevent the exchange of heat and moisture between the ocean and atmosphere. The salt reject during processes of sea ice freezing affects the ocean structure and circulation. Sea ice also affects the weather and climate at the South Ocean and Antarctic continent. The area of Antarctic sea ice takes about 58% of all the area of south hemisphere cryosphere, and 3.58% of Earth surface area. The seasonal sea ice area in Antarctica is about 83% of all sea ice area. The area of sea ice in Antarctica decreases to the smallest, about 3×106km2, at February in the end of Austral summer; the area increases to the largest, around 18×106km2,at September in the end of Austral winter, the fluctuant range for one year-living sea ice is about 15×106km2. The seasonal change of sea ice is larger than 500%, one of the greatest seasonal surface changes on Earth. The inter-annual variations of sea ice zones are big. Antarctic sea ice area is one of key regions, which affect the global climate and environment in season and inter-annual. To understand sea ice processes and the interactions between ocean and atmosphere in sea ice area are the main objectives of international Antarctic sea ice and climate programs. Some progresses of research on sea ice and clime, and international programs on Antarctic sea ice are reviewed.

Key words: Antarctica    Sea ice    Climate.
收稿日期: 2004-09-14 出版日期: 2005-07-25
:  P46  
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目“东南极印度洋区海冰特征与过程研究”(编号:40271026)和“东南极冰盖冰雪地球化学分带研究”(编号:40203013);国家自然科学基金国际合作项目:“南极海冰遥感现场对比实验”(编号:40314137)和“东南极海冰过程与气候”(编号:40414075);科技部科技基础性工作专项“南极地区地球环境监测与关键过程研究——东南极海冰物理特征、过程及与气候关系的研究”(编号:2001DIA50040-03);上海市(外国专家局)引进国(境)外技术、管理人才项目“南极海冰过程与气候”(沪引办人字[2004] B-057号)资助

通讯作者: 康建成   
作者简介: 康建成(1957-),男,甘肃武山人,教授,博士生导师,主要从事气候环境演化过程与全球变化研究. E-mail:kangjc@sh163.net
服务  
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章  
康建成
唐述林
刘雷保

引用本文:

康建成;唐述林;刘雷保. 南极海冰与气候[J]. 地球科学进展, 2005, 20(7): 786-793.

KANG Jiancheng;TANG Shulin;LIU Leibao. ANTARCTIC SEA ICE AND CLIMATE. Advances in Earth Science, 2005, 20(7): 786-793.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2005.07.0786        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2005/V20/I7/786

[1] Barry R G, Serreze M C, Maslanik J A, et al. The Arctic sea ice-climate system: Observations and modeling[J]. Reviews of Geophysics, 1993, 31(4): 397-422.
[2] Moritz R E, Perovich D K, eds. Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean Science Plan, ARCSS/OAII Report Number 5 [R]. Seattle: University of Washington, 1996.
[3] Allison I, et al. Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate: Preliminary Plan. SCAR Report 15 [EB/OL].  http://www.antcrc.utas.edu.au/aspect/, 2001-02-20.
[4] Allison I, Barry R G, Goodison B E, eds. Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) Project [R]. World climate research programme, Science and co-ordination plan, Version 1, WCRP Report, 2000.
[5] IPCC. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis[M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
[6] Cavalieri D J, Gloersen P, Parkinson C L, et al. Observed hemispheric asymmetry in global sea ice changes[J]. Science, 1997, 278: 1 104-1 106.
[7] Cavalieri D J, Parkinson C L, Gloersen P, et al. Deriving long-term time series of sea ice cover from satellite passive-microwave multi-sensor data sets[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research,1999, 104(15): 803-814.
[8] Cavalieri D J, Parkinson C L, Vinnikov K Y. 30-Year satellite reveals contrasting Arctic and Antarctic decadal sea ice variability[J]. Geophysical Research Letters, 2003, 30(18):10.1029/2003GL018031.
[9] SCAR. The Role of the Antarctic in Global Change—An International Plan for a Regional Research Program[R]. SCAR,1993.
[10] Rothrock D A, Yu Y, Maykut G A. Thinning of the Arctic sea-ice cover [J].Geophysical Research Letters,1999, 26(23): 3 469-3 472. 
[11] Kang Jiancheng, Yan Qide, Sun Bo, et al. The Arctic sea ice, climate and its relation with globe climate system[J]. Chinese Journal of Polar Research, 1999, 11 (4): 301-310. [康建成, 颜其德, 孙波,等. 北冰洋海冰/ 气候系统及对全球气候的影响[J]. 极地研究, 1999, 11 (4): 301-310.]
[12] Kang Jiancheng, Sun Bo, Sun Junying, et al. The characteristics of summer sea ice and their relationship with climate in the Chukchi Sea[J]. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 2002, 24(2): 173-180. [康建成, 孙波, 孙俊英, 等.北极楚科奇海海冰特征研究[J]. 冰川冻土, 2002, 24(2):173-180.]
[13] Allison I, Brandt R E, Warren S G. East Antarctic sea ice: Albedo, thickness distribution, and snow cover[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1993, 98(C7): 12 417-12 429.
[14] Allison I. Physical processes determining the Antarctic sea ice environment[J].Australian Journal of Physics, 1997, 50: 759-771.
[15] Worby A P, Massom R A, Allison I, et al. East Antarctic sea ice: A review of its structure, properties and drift [A]. In: Jeffries M O, eds. Antarctic Sea Ice: Physical Processes, Interactions and Variability[C]. American Geophysical Union,1998, 74: 41-67.
[16] Massom R A, Eicken H, Haas C, et al. Snow on Antarctic sea ice[J]. Reviews of Geophysics, 2001, 39(3): 413-445.
[17] Jeffries M O ed. Antarctic Sea Ice: Physical Processes, Interactions and Variability[C]. American Geophysical Union,1998.
[18] Eicken H, Lange M A, Hubberton H  W, et al. Characteristics and distribution patterns of snow and meteoric ice in the Weddell Sea and their contribution to the mass balance of sea ice[J].Annals of Geophysics, 1994, 12(1): 80-93.
[19] Sturm M, Holmgren J, Koenig M, et al. The thermal conductivity of seasonal snow[J]. Journal of Glaciology, 1997, 43(143): 26-41.
[20] Kang Jiancheng, Tang Shulin, Liu Leibao. Satellite remote sensing validation experiment at sea ice zone, east Antarctica[J]. Chinese Journal of Polar Research, 2003, 15 (4): 238-245. [康建成, 唐述林, 刘雷保. 南极海冰遥感现场对比实验[J]. 极地研究, 2003, 15(4): 238-245.]
[21] Allison I, Qian Songlin. Physical properties of sea ice near Casey, Antarctica[A]. In: Studies on Glaciology—No.5, A Collection of Antarctic Scientific Explorations[C]. Bejing: Science Press, 1988. 214-233.[ Allison I,钱嵩林. 南极洲凯西站地区海冰的物理特性[A]. 见:冰川学研究——南极科学考察论文集 (五) [C]. 北京:科学出版社,1988. 214-233.]
[22] Bian Lingen, Lu longhua, Jia Pengqun, et al. Statistic characteristics of Antarctic surface air temperature and sea ice variations[J]. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 1998, 20(4): 293-300.
[23] Xie Simei, Wei Lixin, Hao Chunjiang, et al. Change variation of the Antarctic sea ice and shelf ice[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2003, 25(3):32-46. [解思梅, 魏立新, 郝春江, 等. 南极海冰和陆架冰的变化特征[J]. 海洋学报, 2003, 25(3): 32-46.]
[24] Dong Zhaoqian, Liang Xiangsan. The role of Antarctic sea ice, polynyas and glacier ice in formation and modification of the Antarctic water masses[J]. Antarctic Research, 1993, 5 (3): 1-16. [董兆乾, 梁湘三. 南极海冰、冰穴和冰川冰及其对水团形成和变性的作用[J]. 南极研究,1993, 5(3): 1-16.]
[25] Wang Zipan, Dieckmann G. Ecological environmental features of Antarctic sea ice and its role in the marine ecosystems[J]. Antarctic Research, 1993, 5 (1): 1-15. [王自磐, Dieckmann G. 南极海冰的生态环境特征及其在南极海洋生态系中的作用[J]. 南极研究, 1993, 5 (1): 1-15. ]
[26] He Jianfeng, Chen Bo, Wu Kang. Developing and structural characteristics of first-year sea ice and with effects on ice alage biomass of Zhongshan station, East Antarctica[J]. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 1998, 20( 4): 358-367.
[27] Tang Shulin, Kang Jiancheng, Zhou Shangzhe, et al. Sea ice albedos characteristics in early summer between Middle Weddell Sea to Prydz Bay, Antarctic 2003[J]. Journal of Lanzhou University (Natural Sciences), 2003, 39(suppl.): 67-70.
[28] Tang Shulin, Li Zhijun, Kang Jiancheng, et al. A case study of sea ice distribution between Middle Weddell Sea to Prydz Bay, Antarctic 2003[J]. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 2004, 26(2): 142-145.
[29] Antatctic  CRC. Research Report No. 14, A Technique for Marking Ship-Based observations of Antarctic Sea Ice Thickness and Characteristics[M].Hobart, Tasman ia,7001,Australia,1999.
[30] Massom R A, Harris P T, Michael K J, et al. The distribution and formative processes of latent-heat polynyas in East Antarctica[J]. Annals of Glaciology, 1998, 27: 420-426.
[31] Martinson D G, Killworth P D, Gordon A L. A convective model for Weddell polynya[J]. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 1981, 11(4): 466-487.
[32] Kang Jiancheng. International symposium on sea ice and its interactions with the ocean, atmosphere and biosphere[J]. Chinese Journal of Polar Research, 2000, 12 (3): 233-234.[康建成. 海冰及海冰与海洋、大气、生物圈国际会议[Z]. 极地研究, 2000, 12(3): 233-234.]
[33] Gloerson P, Campbell W J, Cavalieri D J, et al. Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice, 1978-1987[R]. Washington DC: NASA, 1992.
[34] King J C, Turner J. Antarctic Meteorology and Climatology[M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
[35] William K, de la Mare. Abrupt mid-twentieth-century decline in Antarctic sea-ice extent from whaling records[J]. Nature, 1997, 389: 57-60. 
[36] Zwally H J, Comiso J C, Parkinson C L, et al. Variability of Antarctic sea ice 1979 1998[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2002, 107(C5):10.1029/2000JC000733.
[37] Ma Lijuan, Lu Longhua, Bian Lingen. Spatio-temporal character of Antarctic sea ice variation[J]. Chinese Journal of Polar Research, 2004, 16(1):29-37.[马丽娟,陆龙骅,卞林根.南极海冰的时空变化特征 [J]. 极地研究, 2004, 16(1):29-37.]
[38] Chapman W L, Walsh J E. Recent variation of sea ice and air temperature in high latitudes[J]. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society, 1993, 74: 33-47.
[39] Brandt R E, Roesler C S, Warren S G. Spectral albedo, absorptance, and transmittance of Antarctic sea ice[A]. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography[C]. Boston Mass: American Meteorological Society, 1999.456-459. 
[40] Wendler G, Worby A P. The surface energy budget in the Antarctic summer sea-ice pack[J]. Annals of Glaciology, 2001, 33: 275-279.
[41] Nicol S, Allison I. The frozen skin of the southern ocean[J]. American Scientist, 1997, 85: 426-439.
[42] SCAR Report No 15[EB/OL]. http://www.scar.org/publications/reports/15/, 2005-03-13.
[43] Climate and Cryosphere Project [EB/OL]. http://clic.npolar.no/, 2005-03-13.
[44] CliC First Science Conference[EB/OL].http://www.clic2005.org.conf.php, 2005-03-13.

[1] 聂红涛, 王蕊, 赵伟, 罗晓凡, 祁第, 鹿有余, 张远辉, 魏皓. 北冰洋太平洋扇区碳循环变化机制研究面临的关键科学问题与挑战[J]. 地球科学进展, 2017, 32(10): 1084-1092.
[2] 汪燕敏, 祁第, 陈立奇. 南大洋酸化指标——海水文石饱和度变异的研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2016, 31(4): 357-364.
[3] 吴晨曦, 刘世杰, 田一翔, 童小华. 基于多源遥感数据的南极三大冰架前端变化分析[J]. 地球科学进展, 2016, 31(2): 206-212.
[4] 赵进平, 史久新, 王召民, 李志军, 黄菲. 北极海冰减退引起的北极放大机理与全球气候效应[J]. 地球科学进展, 2015, 30(9): 985-995.
[5] 张胜凯, 雷锦韬, 李斐. 全球海潮模型研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2015, 30(5): 579-588.
[6] 胡毅, 王立明, 钟贵才, 房旭东, 许江, 何慧优. 威德尔海的重磁场特征及其构造意义[J]. 地球科学进展, 2015, 30(11): 1231-1238.
[7] 王维波, 赵进平. 累积海冰密集度及其在认识北极海冰快速变化的作用[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(6): 712-722.
[8] 祁第, 陈立奇. 北冰洋酸化指标——海水文石饱和度变异的研究进展*[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(5): 569-576.
[9] 牟龙江,赵进平. 格陵兰海海冰外缘线变化特征分析[J]. 地球科学进展, 2013, 28(6): 709-717.
[10] 马浩,王召民,史久新. 南大洋物理过程在全球气候系统中的作用[J]. 地球科学进展, 2012, 27(4): 398-412.
[11] 马红梅,孙波,姜苏,安春雷,史贵涛,李院生. 极地冰下生物地球化学过程研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2012, 27(2): 147-153.
[12] 康世昌, 黄杰,张强弓. 雪冰中汞的研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2010, 25(8): 783-793.
[13] 姜苏,李院生,马红梅,安春雷. 环境中高氯酸盐的来源、污染现状及其分析方法[J]. 地球科学进展, 2010, 25(6): 617-624.
[14] 赵进平,史久新,金明明,李超伦,矫玉田,卢勇. 楚科奇海融冰过程中的海水结构研究[J]. 地球科学进展, 2010, 25(2): 154-162.
[15] 杨清华,张占海,刘骥平,吴辉碇,张林. 海冰反照率参数化方案的研究回顾[J]. 地球科学进展, 2010, 25(1): 14-21.