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地球科学进展  2019, Vol. 34 Issue (11): 1131-1140    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.11.1131
综述与评述     
多年冻土区天然气管道工程:技术挑战和应对方案
李欣泽1,2,3(),金会军1,4,5()
1. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院 冻土工程国家重点实验室,甘肃 兰州 730000
2. 中国科学院大学资源环境学院,北京 100049
3. 中石化石油工程设计有限公司,山东 东营 257026
4. 哈尔滨工业大学 土木工程学院,黑龙江 哈尔滨 150090
5. 哈尔滨工业大学 极地研究院 冻土与寒区工程国际研究中心,黑龙江 哈尔滨 150090
Technical Challenges and Engineering Solutions for Gas Pipelines in Permafrost Regions: A Review
Xinze Li1,2,3(),Huijun Jin1,4,5()
1. State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soils Engineering, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2. Colleage of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3. Sinopec Petroleum Engineering Co. , Shandong Dongying 257026,China
4. School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090,China
5. International Research Center for Polar and Cold Regions Engineering (IRC-PaCRE), Polar Academy of Harbin Institute of Technology (PA-HIT), Harbin 150090, China
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摘要:

多年冻土区油气管道工程在许多方面都有别于常温地区的油气管道工程,如偏僻的地理位置和敏感脆弱的环境,更重要是其特殊的气候、水文地质和工程地质条件以及冻融岩土灾害等条件。这使得管道设计、建设、运营、维抢和管道系统安全以及完整性管理等方面面临一系列的特殊难题。不同于已建成并运营至今的美国阿拉斯加(Alyeska)原油管道、加拿大罗曼井(Norman Wells)原油管道、中俄原油管道(漠河—大庆段)和格尔木—拉萨成品油管道,多年冻土区的天然气管道在输运介质、输送温度、环保要求等方面和输油管道有很大差异,将面临一系列新问题和新挑战。通过对多年冻土区天然气管道冷却输送工艺,管道—冻土水、热、力耦合计算,压气站失效后下游管道最低金属温度超限,基于应力设计局限、敷设方式单一、管道运营期监测系统可靠性等冻土区天然气管道特有的技术难题探讨,初步给出相应的解决方案构想,希望能够为冻土区天然气管道建设提供新的思路。

关键词: 输气管道多年冻土冷却输送工艺管土水力热力耦合基于应变的管道设计    
Abstract:

Oil and gas pipelines in permafrost regions differ greatly from those in temperate climate zones. People only know that these pipelines were constructed in remote areas with fragile environments. However, gas pipeline engineering, construction, operation and management will face a series of unique problems because of unforgiving environment, special hydrogeology, engineering geology, and freezing and thawing disasters. Being different from the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System, Roman Wells Oil Pipeline, China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline from Mo’he to Daqing and Golmud-Lhasa Oil Products Pipeline, natural gas pipelines in permafrost regions face new problems and challenges in many areas including different transporting media, gas flow temperature control and environmental protection. This paper systematically reviewed issues such as chilled transporting processes, coupled hydrothermal-hydraulic-mechanical modeling of the pipe-soil system, temperature overrun in station outage scenarios, engineering constraints of stress-based design, single laying method and low reliability of monitoring system during operating stage. Initial framework solutions were proposed in the hope of identifying new approaches for gas pipeline in northern and upland permafrost regions.

Key words: Natural gas pipeline    Permafrost    Chilled transporting processes    Coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical modeling    Strain-based design for gas pipelines.
收稿日期: 2019-06-23 出版日期: 2019-12-31
ZTFLH:  P642.14  
基金资助: 中石化石油工程建设有限公司应用基础课题“阿拉斯加天然气管道建设关键技术可行性研究”资助
通讯作者: 金会军     E-mail: slecclxz@sina.com;hjjin@lzb.ac.cn
作者简介: 李欣泽(1987-),男,新疆克拉玛依人,博士研究生,主要从事冻土与寒区工程研究. E-mail:slecclxz@sina.com
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引用本文:

李欣泽,金会军. 多年冻土区天然气管道工程:技术挑战和应对方案[J]. 地球科学进展, 2019, 34(11): 1131-1140.

Xinze Li,Huijun Jin. Technical Challenges and Engineering Solutions for Gas Pipelines in Permafrost Regions: A Review. Advances in Earth Science, 2019, 34(11): 1131-1140.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.11.1131        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2019/V34/I11/1131

图1  某极地天然气管道的沿线压力和温度曲线图(冬季工况)红色曲线代表压力,蓝色曲线代表温度
图2  某极地天然气管道的沿线压力和温度曲线图(夏季工况)红色曲线代表压力,蓝色曲线代表温度
图3  管道运行温度控制线
图4  带冷却功能单机组压气站工艺流程图
序号标准H2S指标控制
1欧洲标准EN 16726-2016《燃气基础设施气体质量H组》5 mg/m3
2

德国燃气和水工业协会标准

DVGW G 260-2013《气体质量》

5 mg/m3
3美国燃气协会标准AGA 4A-2009《天然气合同计量和质量条款》5.7~23 mg/m3
4俄罗斯国家标准GOST 5524-2014《工业和公共生活用可燃天然气》20 mg/m3
5美国AGA 4A报告5.72~22.88 mg/m3
6加拿大标准BNQ 3672-100:2012

≤7 mg/m3(分配)

≤23 mg/m3(输送)

7中国GB17820-2018《天然气》6 mg/m3
表1  部分国家燃气相关标准中对硫化氢含量要求
技术方案缺点优点

技术方案1:

提高失效压气站上游压气站出站温度

过分提高压气站的出口温度,很容易引起冻土融化和管道融沉不增加投资

技术方案2:

在可能超低温管段选用高性能管材

增加投资保证管道继续在高输量下运行

技术方案3:

降低管道输量

1.需精确计算某压气站失效后管道的最高允许输量,计算结果受季节、失效压气站位置等因素影响,逻辑控制不好实现

2.降低管道全年输量

3.由于输量降低,其他压气站运行低负荷,当低负荷超限,引发其他压气站失效

4.离心压缩机由于进气量降低,容易引发喘振,需要采取站内打回流操作,造成能量浪费

5.燃驱压缩机在低负荷运行,污染物排放容易超标

不增加投资

技术方案4:

增设加热站,当某压气站失效停机,加热站投用

增加投资保证管道继续在高输量下运行
表2  技术方案对比表
序号国家规范名称
1中国《西气东输二线管道工程强震区和活动断层区段埋地管道基于应变设计导则》
2加拿大CSA Z662
3挪威DNV-OS-F101
4美国《埋地管道设计指南》、ASM E B31.8、API 1111和ABS 2001
5中国SY/T 7403-2018《油气输送管道应变设计规范》
表3  涉及基于应变设计方法的管道规范或导则
序号管线名称使用条件
1西气东输二线活动断层、强震区
2BP-Northstar管线阿拉斯加极地浅海
3Statoil-Haltenpipe管线针对悬空及不稳定海床
4Connoco Philips- Ekofisk II管线海底管线极限状态设计
5BP-Alaska管线极地浅海管线
6Shell-Malampaya管线地震及不稳定海床管线极限状态设计
7ExxonMobil-Sakhalin Island管线地震区管线
8Enbridge-Norman Wells管线多年冻土区
9BP-Badami管线阿拉斯加极地地区
10阿尔博特-Nova 输气管线不连续冻土区
11TAPS输气管线多年冻土区
表4  涉及基于应变设计方法的管道工程
序号敷设方案优点缺点国内外应用
1架空敷设

1.便于检修,降低事故机率,当事故出现后消除事故费时较少

2.管道与冻土地质关系不大,管道对冻土热影响极小,能有效保护冻土环境,规避各种冻害影响

3.不会妨碍天然气地表径流,高支墩管道不妨碍野生动物迁徙

1.易受第三方破坏,外冲击作用下比较脆弱,林区失火风险高

2.造价高,桩基易受冻拔作用,若配上热桩,建设费用更高

阿拉斯加管道近57%的管段
2地面敷设

1.对冻土热影响较小

2.线路无需进行大开挖,无须铺设锚固设施

1.易受第三方破坏

2.改变地表径流,易受冲刷,对地表生态影响大

3.对多年冻土有附加间接热力作用

4.妨碍野生动物迁徙

1.俄罗斯管道

2.阿拉斯加管道穿越断层处管段

3直接埋设+保温

1.防止森林失火,对生态破坏最小,方便荒野动物迁移,不会造成地表水径流的障碍

2.施工方便

3.总体费用低

1.事故发现和排除比较复杂

2.线路在冬季开挖困难,土方挖掘工程量大

3.事故出现机率与热作用关系很大,管道的热作用对地质环境有影响,难以准确预测

4.对管材的应力应变水平要求高

1.阿拉斯加管道近一半管段

2.俄罗斯远东管道(靠近中国的部分高含冰沼泽、洼地段)

3.中俄原油管道Ⅰ线和Ⅱ线

表5  多年冻土区天然气管道敷设方案优缺点对比
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