Please wait a minute...
img img
高级检索
地球科学进展  2003, Vol. 18 Issue (4): 509-514    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2003.04.0509
研究论文     
中国旱涝灾害的分形结构
朱晓华1,蔡运龙1,王建2
1.北京大学资源环境地理学系,地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室,北京  100871;2.南京师范大学地理系,江苏  南京  210097
ON FRACTAL CHARACTERS OF DROUGHT AND FLOOD OF CHINA
Zhu Xiaohua1,Cai Yunlong1,Wang Jian2
1.Department of Resource & Environment &Geography, Peking University, Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes under the Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871, China;2. Department of Geography, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, China
 全文: PDF(121 KB)  
摘要:

基于分形理论在中国旱涝灾害研究方面所存在的问题,首先系统地分析了中国华北区、西北区等不同区域和松花江、长江等不同流域旱涝灾害的分形结构,其次以唐山市为例系统分析了同一地点不同等级旱涝灾害分维的时序变化及其关系,进而探讨了以分维为中介参数在旱涝灾害与其影响因素之间建立定量化经验关系的可能。研究结果表明,中国旱涝灾害具有客观的分形结构,分维是表征中国旱涝灾害发生特征的良好参数;在此基础上,系统地计算出了中国旱涝灾害的分维值、分析了唐山市不同等级旱涝灾害分维的时序变化关系,并建立了辽河、长江等流域水系空间维数与流域洪涝分维之间的定量关系式DF=3.6179DR-4.0242(式中DR为流域水系空间维数,DF为流域洪涝分维)。

关键词: 分形理论分维旱涝灾害中国    
Abstract:

Mandelbrot enunciated the uncertainty of the length of a coastline in his paper “How long is the coastline of Britain?” published in “Science” in 1967. The fractal concept was presented for the first time in that paper and has been applied to many fields ever since. Although fractal dimensions of lots of phenomena were calculated, related studies on fractal character of drought and flood of China are seldom. Based on the fractal theory, issues of drought and flood were preliminarily discussed in this paper. Firstly, fractal structures of drought and flood were systemically analyzed to different regions and river basins; Secondly, changes of fractal dimensions of drought and flood with different grades and their relationships were also discussed as a case study of Tangshan city. Furthermore, quantitative experiential relationship between drought or flood and the influenced factor was established by use of the fractal dimension as a parameter. Some significant conclusions were drawn as follows:Fractal structure existed objectively in drought and flood of China, fractal dimension is a good parameter as a token of drought and flood. Moreover, the fractal dimensions of drought and flood of China were systematically calculated, and the change of fractal dimensions of drought and flood with different grades was analyzed, and the quantitative formula between the fractal dimensions of river basins and those of flood was established as DF=3.6179DR-4.0242(where:DR is the fractal dimension of river basin, DF is the fractal dimension of flood).

Key words: China.    Fractal theory    Fractal dimension    Flood and drought
收稿日期: 2002-08-29 出版日期: 2003-08-01
:  S423   
基金资助:

国家“十五”科技攻关项目子课题“重点脆弱区生态系统评价与综合治理技术的系统集成”(编号:2001BA606A -01);教育部“教育振兴计划”青年教师奖励基金项目“地貌过程及其机制”(编号:2001DLXSBJBC12)资助.

通讯作者: 朱晓华     E-mail: zhxh973@263.net
作者简介: 朱晓华(1972-),男,安徽郎溪人,博士后,主要从事分形地学综合研究. E-mail:zhxh973@263.net
服务  
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章  
朱晓华
王建
蔡运龙

引用本文:

朱晓华,蔡运龙,王建. 中国旱涝灾害的分形结构[J]. 地球科学进展, 2003, 18(4): 509-514.

Zhu Xiaohua,Cai Yunlong,Wang Jian. ON FRACTAL CHARACTERS OF DROUGHT AND FLOOD OF CHINA. Advances in Earth Science, 2003, 18(4): 509-514.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2003.04.0509        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2003/V18/I4/509

[1] Zhu Xiaohua,Yang Xiuchun. Fractal theory, jieke theory and the development of geography[J]. Science Technology Review,2000,(5):20-23.[朱晓华,杨秀春.分形论、界壳论及其与地理学的发展[J].科技导报,2000,(5):20-23.]

[2] Zhu Xiaohua. Progress in the research of strange phenomena of the fractal in natural disasters[J]. Science Technology Review,1999,(10):48-50.[朱晓华.自然灾害中奇异分形现象的研究进展[J].科技导报,1999,(10):48-50.]

[3] Zhou Yinkang,Zhang Jie,Wang Lachun,et al. Fractal and natural disasters research—Fractal research in seismic and flood disaster[J]. Journal of Natural Disasters,1995,4(4):9-15.[周寅康,张捷,王腊春,.分形论与自然灾害研究——地震、洪涝灾害中的分形研究[J].自然灾害学报,1995,4(4):9-15.]

[4] Zhou Yinkang,Wang Lachun,Zhang Jie. Some chaotic characters of the flood series in Huaihe river basin[J]. Journal of Natural Disasters,1999,8(1):42-47.[周寅康,王腊春,张捷.淮河流域洪涝变化的混沌特征[J].自然灾害学报,1999,8(1):42-47.]

[5] Zhu Xiaohua,Mao Jianming. Study on the characters of disaster self-organization[J]. Journal of Catastrophology, 2000, 15(2):7-10.[朱晓华,毛建明.灾害发生的自组织性质探讨[J].灾害学,2000,15(2):7-10.]

[6] Li Houqiang,Ai Nanshan. On the man-earth synergetics—and studies on some nonlinear dynamics aspects of the man-earth systems[J]. Advances in Earth Science,1996,11(2):178-184.[李后强,艾南山.人地协同论——兼论人地系统的若干非线性动力学问题[J].地球科学进展,1996,11(2):178-184.]

[7] Office of Flood-control and Drought-control Headquarters, Nanjing Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources. Flood and Drought of China[M]. Beijing: China Press of Irrigation, Water and Electricity,1997:532-569.[国家防汛抗旱总指挥部办公室,水利部南京水文水资源研究所.中国水旱灾害[M].北京:中国水利水电出版社,1997. 532-569.]

[8] Luo Chengzheng, Le Jiaxiang. Big Flood of China[M]. Beijing: China Bookstore Press,1996. 1-434.[骆承政,乐嘉祥.中国大洪水[M].北京:中国书店出版社,1996. 1-434.]

[9] Institute of Meteorology Sciences of China Central Meteorological Bureau. The Atlas of Flood and Drought for 500 Years of China[M]. Beijing: Map Press,1981. 321-332.[中央气象局气象科学研究所.中国五百年旱涝分布图集[M].北京:地图出版社,1981. 321-332.]

[1] 吴绍洪, 高江波, 戴尔阜, 赵东升, 尹云鹤, 杨琳, 郑景云, 潘韬, 杨勤业. 中国陆地表层自然地域系统动态研究:思路与方案[J]. 地球科学进展, 2017, 32(6): 569-576.
[2] 陈晓龙, 周天军. 使用订正的“空间型标度”法预估1.5 ℃温升阈值下地表气温变化[J]. 地球科学进展, 2017, 32(4): 435-445.
[3] 杨占红, 罗宏, 薛婕, 张保留. 中印两国碳排放形势及目标比较研究[J]. 地球科学进展, 2016, 31(7): 764-773.
[4] 张 勇, 戎志国, 闵 敏. 中国遥感卫星辐射校正场热红外通道在轨场地辐射定标方法精度评估[J]. 地球科学进展, 2016, 31(2): 171-179.
[5] 任诗鹤, 王辉, 刘娜. 中国近海海洋锋和锋面预报研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2015, 30(5): 552-563.
[6] 陆大道. 辉煌的成就,更高的使命——写在第33届国际地理学大会在北京召开之前[J]. 地球科学进展, 2015, 30(10): 1075-1080.
[7] 苏强. 群落物种多度格局的分形解析[J]. 地球科学进展, 2015, 30(10): 1144-1150.
[8] 贾路路, 相龙伟, 汪汉胜. 地壳结构对GRACE估算中国大陆地表垂直负荷形变的影响*[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(7): 828-834.
[9] 魏柱灯, 方修琦, 苏筠, 萧凌波. 过去2 000年气候变化对中国经济与社会发展影响研究综述[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(3): 336-343.
[10] 潘竟虎, 刘伟圣. 基于腹地划分的中国城市群空间影响范围识别[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(3): 352-360.
[11] 巫建华, 解开瑞, 吴仁贵, 郭国林, 刘帅. 中国东部中生代流纹岩—粗面岩组合与热液型铀矿研究新进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(12): 1372-1382.
[12] 葛全胜, 方修琦, 郑景云. 中国历史时期气候变化影响及其应对的启示*[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(1): 23-29.
[13] 包汉勇,郭战峰,张罗磊,黄亚平. 太平洋板块形成以来的中国东部构造动力学背景[J]. 地球科学进展, 2013, 28(3): 337-346.
[14] 王林,陈文. 误差订正空间分解法在中国的应用[J]. 地球科学进展, 2013, 28(10): 1144-1153.
[15] 周广胜,何奇瑾. 生态系统响应全球变化的陆地样带研究[J]. 地球科学进展, 2012, 27(5): 563-572.