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地球科学进展  2018, Vol. 33 Issue (3): 305-320    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.03.0305
研究简报     
库车坳陷迪北侏罗系深部储层孔隙演化特征与有利储层评价——埋藏方式制约下的成岩物理模拟实验研究
冯佳睿(), 高志勇, 崔京钢, 周川闽
1.中国石油勘探开发研究院石油地质实验研究中心,北京 100083;2.中国石油天然气集团公司油气储层重点实验室,北京 100083
Reservoir Porosity Evolution Characteristics and Evaluation of the Jurassic Deep Reservoir from Dibei in Kuqa Depression: Insight from Diagenesis Modeling Experiments Under the Influence of Burial Mode
Jiarui Feng(), Zhiyong Gao, Jinggang Cui, Chuanmin Zhou
1.Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, Petroleum Geology Research and Laboratory Center, Beijing 100083, China;2.Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoirs, China National Petroleum Corporation, Beijing 100083, China
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摘要:

利用自主研发的成岩物理模拟系统,对库车坳陷迪北侏罗系粗砂岩储层在特有的埋藏方式下,即沉积早期长期浅埋、后期快速深埋、晚期构造抬升影响下的成岩演化过程开展成岩物理模拟实验。研究表明:随着模拟的温度、压力、埋深的逐渐增大和压实作用的持续加强,石英、长石等脆性颗粒出现裂纹,长石更易形成次生溶蚀;粗砂岩成岩样品的孔隙、孔喉和成岩流体中K,Na,Ca,Al,Si,Ti和Mn等主要阳离子均呈现一定的变化规律;自生矿物和黏土矿物发育,如方解石、石英、自生I/S混层和绿泥石等较常见。快速深埋藏阶段3 000~6 500 m,溶蚀作用强烈,孔径和喉径均达到最大值,方解石胶结和石英加大发育。构造抬升阶段5 000~4 500 m,在降温卸压作用影响下,砂岩孔隙回弹,油气充注的酸性水使长石和岩屑等强烈溶蚀。实验表明,深部溶蚀作用、早期长期浅埋、后期快速深埋、晚期构造抬升的埋藏方式和构造作用引起的侧向挤压、裂缝等因素,是我国西部挤压型油气盆地中深部优质储层形成的重要条件。

关键词: 库车坳陷成岩物理模拟深部储层成岩作用    
Abstract:

In this study, using an independently developed diagenetic physical modeling system, we conducted a series of diagenesis physical modeling experiments to simulate reservoir physical property of the Jurassic coarse sandstone from Dibei in Kuqa depression. These experiments reproduced the geological process of early, long-term, shallow burial and subsequent rapid, deep burial, and late tectonic uplift. As the gradual increasing of the simulated temperature, pressure, depth and the continuous strengthening of the compaction, intragranular irregular cracks appeared in quartz, and secondary dissolution could be more easily discovered in feldspar; Porosity, pore throat and K, Na, Ca, Al, Si, Ti, Mn in diagenetic fluid all showed significant evolution and regularity; Calcite, quartz, I/S mixed layer and chlorite were commonly found in modeling samples. At the depth of 3 000~6 500 m, accompanied by strong dissolution, pore diameter and throat diameter reached the maximum, and calcite cementation and quartz overgrowth also increased quickly. At the tectonic uplift stage of 5 000~4 500 m, under the influence of temperature and pressure relief, sandstone porosity began to rebound, and feldspar and rock debris were obviously dissolved under the acidic water from hydrocarbon charging. The formation of effective reservoirs in Western China’s oil and gas basins can be deeply influenced by the factors of dissolution, the process of early, long-term, shallow burial and subsequent rapid, deep burial, and late tectonic uplift, lateral extrusion and cracks induced by tectonic action.

Key words: Kuqa depression    Diagenesis physical modeling    Deep reservoirs    Diagenesis.
收稿日期: 2017-09-05 出版日期: 2018-05-02
ZTFLH:  P618.130.2+1  
基金资助: *国家科技重大专项项目“前陆冲断带及复杂构造区地质演化过程、深层结构与储层特征”(编号:2016ZX05003-001)资助.
作者简介:

作者简介:冯佳睿(1982-),女,河北张家口人,工程师,主要从事储层地质学方面的研究.E-mail:jrfeng2016@163.com

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引用本文:

冯佳睿, 高志勇, 崔京钢, 周川闽. 库车坳陷迪北侏罗系深部储层孔隙演化特征与有利储层评价——埋藏方式制约下的成岩物理模拟实验研究[J]. 地球科学进展, 2018, 33(3): 305-320.

Jiarui Feng, Zhiyong Gao, Jinggang Cui, Chuanmin Zhou. Reservoir Porosity Evolution Characteristics and Evaluation of the Jurassic Deep Reservoir from Dibei in Kuqa Depression: Insight from Diagenesis Modeling Experiments Under the Influence of Burial Mode. Advances in Earth Science, 2018, 33(3): 305-320.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.03.0305        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V33/I3/305

图1  成岩物理模拟系统照片
种类 砂岩 泥岩
碎屑组分 长石 石英 岩屑 填隙物
含量/% 10 40 50 7
矿物组分






















含量/% 8 2 40 9 8 12 15 6 3 2 1 1 31
表1  库车迪北侏罗系粗砂岩碎屑组分配比
图2  砂岩和泥岩样品照片
图3  库车坳陷迪北中新生代埋藏演化史[51]
编号 库车前陆盆地 Sweeney等[52] 计算的泥岩热模拟实验条件
深度/m RO/% 代表井 埋藏时间/Ma 温度/℃ Easy RO/% 实验时间/h 实验温度/℃ RO/%
1 1 261 0.1 克孜1 5 20 0.2 5 250 0.2
2 1 445 0.5 依深4 20 60 0.35 12.5 275 0.45
3 40 80 0.46 25 300 0.56
4 2 440 0.72 依深4 60 100 0.61 37.5 325 0.68
5 2 940 0.8 依深4 80 120 0.74 50 350 0.8
6 3 430 0.87 依南4 100 140 0.94 55 360 0.86
7 3 705 0.89 依南2 120 100 0.98 60 370 0.94
8 140 59.9 0.98 62.5 375 0.99
9 4 321 1.09 依南2 160 60 0.98 65 380 1.04
10 4 534 1.15 依南2 180 90 0.98 70 390 1.15
11 200 120 0.98 75 400 1.26
12 4 839 1.35 依南2 220 150 1.11 80 410 1.38
13 5 310 1.43 依南2 240 180 1.63 85 420 1.52
14 245 185 1.79 87.5 425 1.58
15 250 190 1.93 100 450 1.98
16 300 190 2.25 112.5 475 2.43
17 500 200 2.81 125 500 2.91
表2  有机质热模拟实验中加热时间、加热温度及有机质地质成熟时间关系对比表
温度点
/℃
静岩压
力/MPa
模拟深
度/m
模拟时
间/d
釜体编号
20
250 4
300 110 2 000 6
325 123.5 2 500 8
350 137.5 3 000 10
387.5 178.5 4 500 16
437.5 233.75 6 500 18.33
387.5 178.5 4 500 20.66
20
250 4.39
300 110 2 000 6.58
325 123.75 2 500 8.77
350 137.5 3 000 10.97
362.5 151.25 3 500 13.16
375 165 4 000 15.36
400 192.5 5 000 18.35
412.5 206.25 5 500 18.95
425 220 6 000 19.55
400 192.5 5 000 20.74
387.5 178.75 4 500 22.66
表3  成岩物理模拟实验温度和压力参数表
图4  库车迪北侏罗系粗砂岩成岩物理模拟实验成型效果图
图5  石英和长石颗粒压裂现象的扫描电镜照片 SEM HV:扫描电压;SEM MAG:放大倍数;WD: 工作距离;Det (探头):BSE Detector背散射探头;Name:样品照片编号;Digital Microscopy Imaging:数字显微成像
图6  依南4井碎屑颗粒定向裂缝的铸体薄片特征(a)依南4井,4 560.33 m,20(-);(b)依南4井,4 575.64 m,40(-)
图7  长石溶蚀作用的铸体薄片图像(a)长石溶蚀从边缘向中心扩散,钾长石破裂后被溶蚀,100(-);(b)斜长石溶蚀沿解理缝方向扩展,100(-);(c)长石溶蚀残余,40(-);(d)溶蚀扩大孔,100(-)
图8  成岩物理模拟实验粗砂岩成岩样品孔隙变化曲线图
图9  成岩物理模拟实验粗砂岩成岩样品孔径与喉径演化曲线图
图10  成岩流体中主要阳离子含量随埋深变化曲线
序号 总面孔率/% 原生粒间孔
面孔率/%
溶蚀孔
面孔率/%
温度/℃ 压力/MPa 模拟埋深/m
1 21.95 20.32 2.80 300 110 2 000
2 21.35 19.87 2.96 325 123.5 2 500
3 20.61 19.55 2.37 350 137.5 3 000
4 19.94 18.36 2.18 375 165 4 000
5 21.55 19.76 3.55 387.5 178.5 4 500
6 18.80 18.26 2.25 400 192.5 5 000
7 17.30 15.72 3.82 412.5 206.25 5 500
8 13.23 12.31 3.91 425 220 6 000
9 11.65 8.15 3.98 437.5 233.75 6 500
10 12.90 9.78 4.07 400 192.5 5 000
11 18.39 14.88 5.13 387.5 178.5 4 500
表4  库车迪北粗砂岩成岩物理模拟实验孔隙分析数据
序号 最大孔径
/μm
平均孔径
/μm
最大喉径
/μm
平均喉径
/μm
温度/℃ 压力/MPa 模拟埋深
/m
1 287.39 89.02 49.02 9.86 300.0 110.00 2 000
2 250.17 82.60 42.25 9.80 325.0 123.50 2 500
3 366.68 110.66 46.96 10.75 350.0 137.50 3 000
4 464.68 230.06 29.69 8.48 375.0 165.00 4 000
5 459.47 200.91 38.42 9.27 387.5 178.50 4 500
6 470.29 182.84 42.45 13.24 400.0 192.50 5 000
7 519.13 175.10 48.41 11.94 412.5 206.25 5 500
8 267.36 93.06 48.11 10.91 425.0 220.00 6 000
9 372.06 130.44 29.92 9.04 437.5 233.75 6 500
10 269.97 80.45 42.51 9.51 400.0 192.50 5 000
11 343.42 105.98 40.30 10.97 387.5 178.50 4 500
表5  库车迪北侏罗系粗砂岩样品孔喉、孔径变化分析结果
图11  砂岩中自生矿物扫描电镜照片(a)石膏(4 600倍),400 ℃,192.5 MPa,5 000 m;(b) 奥长石(2 600倍),412.5 ℃,206.25 MPa,5 500 m;(c) 钠长石(5 110倍),412.5 ℃, 206.25 MPa,5 500 m;(d) 方解石(4 510倍),387.5 ℃,178.5 MPa,4 500 m;(e) 方解石(1 530倍),412.5 ℃,206.25 MPa,5 500 m; (f) 石英(15 340倍),437.5 ℃,233.75 MPa,6 500 m
图12  泥岩中自生黏土矿物扫描电镜照片(a) 片状I/S混层(5 020倍),325 ℃,123.5 MPa,2 500 m;(b) 片状I/S混层(2 130倍),387.5 ℃,178.5 MPa,4 500 m;(c) 片状I/S混层(4 350倍),400 ℃,192.5 MPa,5 000 m;(d) 丝状伊利石(7 500倍),375 ℃,165 MPa,4 000 m;(e) 片状伊利石(3 920倍),425 ℃,220 MPa,6 000 m;(f) 片状伊利石(5 160倍),437.5 ℃,233.75 MPa,6 500 m;(g) 针状、片状绿泥石(2 390倍),325 ℃,123.5 MPa,2 500 m;(h) 花朵状、片状绿泥石(4 010倍),375 ℃,165 MPa,4 000 m;(i) 针状、片状绿泥石(4 870倍),412.5 ℃,206.25 MPa,5 500 m
序号 黏土矿物相对含量/% 实验条件
伊/蒙混层 伊利石 绿泥石 高岭石 温度/℃ 压力/MPa 深度/m
1 20 36 10 34 300.0 110.00 2 000
2 32 41 19 8 325.0 123.50 2 500
3 32 44 17 7 350.0 137.50 3 000
4 33 34 25 8 375.0 165.00 4 000
5 / 33 / / 387.5 178.50 4 500
6 50 33 12 5 400.0 192.50 5 000
7 51 32 12 5 412.5 206.25 5 500
8 51 30 14 5 425.0 220.00 6 000
9 16 58 18 8 437.5 233.75 6 500
10 61 31 5 3 400.0 192.50 5 000
11 23 56 13 8 387.5 178.50 4 500
表6  库车迪北侏罗系粗砂岩成岩物理模拟实验黏土矿物相对含量统计表
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