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地球科学进展  2021, Vol. 36 Issue (7): 712-726    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2021.057
综述与评述     
土壤侵蚀中的片蚀研究综述
李芦頔1(),吴冰1(),李鑫璐1,杨洁2,林良国2
1.西安交通大学 人居环境与建筑工程学院,陕西 西安 710049
2.长安大学 土地工程学院,陕西 西安 710054
Sheet Erosion Study in Soil Erosion: A Review
Ludi LI1(),Bing WU1(),Xinlu LI1,Jie YANG2,Liangguo LIN2
1.School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering,Xi'an Jiaotong University,Xi'an 710049,China
2.School of Land Engineering,Chang'an University,Xi'an 710054,China
 全文: PDF(847 KB)   RICH HTML
摘要:

土壤侵蚀制约着社会、经济、环境的协调发展,危害极大,片蚀是坡面土壤侵蚀过程的第一阶段,又是土壤坡面水蚀过程中分布面积最大且最为复杂和独特的侵蚀类型。研究片蚀过程和机理对于深入揭示坡面水蚀机制,建立区域水蚀模型具有重要意义。归纳总结了国内外现有的片蚀研究现状,包括片蚀动力学过程与机理,雨滴动能、降雨强度、坡度、植被覆盖、土壤类型和地表粗糙度对片蚀的影响,坡面片蚀分离、搬运及其限制性过程,基于不同影响因子的坡面片蚀预测模型等,虽然学者从各个角度定性定量地研究了片蚀对不同影响因子的响应,但是研究仍存在一定的区域限制性,因此可进一步开展相关研究建立具有广泛应用性的片蚀预测模型。研究结果可为我国水土流失综合治理及生态文明建设提供科学依据。

关键词: 片蚀坡面径流降雨土壤侵蚀    
Abstract:

Soil erosion is extremely dangerous which can restrict the balanced development of society, economy, and environment. Sheet erosion belongs to the first stage of the soil erosion process, and it is the largest and most complex and unique type of erosion in the process of water erosion. Studying the process and mechanism of sheet erosion is of great significance to reveal the mechanism of water erosion and establish regional water erosion models. This article summarizes the current researches of sheet erosion: the dynamic process and mechanism of sheet erosion, the influences of raindrop kinetic energy, rainfall intensity, slope steepness, vegetation cover, soil type and surface roughness on sheet erosion, the detachment-limited process and transport-limited process of sheet erosion and sheet erosion prediction models based on different influencing factors, etc. Although scholars have qualitatively and quantitatively studied the response of sheet erosion to different influencing factors, the current researches still have certain regional limitations. Therefore, relevant researches can be further carried out to establish widely applicable sheet erosion prediction models. The results can provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive management of soil erosion and the construction of ecological civilization in China.

Key words: Sheet erosion    Overland runoff    Rainfall    Soil erosion
收稿日期: 2021-04-07 出版日期: 2021-08-20
ZTFLH:  P934  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目“黄土地区受雨滴打击影响的片流搬运能力试验研究”(41907046);地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室(北京师范大学)开放课题“黄土坡面片蚀过程关键参数及其耦合关系试验研究”(2020-KF-08)
通信作者: 吴冰     E-mail: ludylee@stu.xjtu.edu.cn;wubing1099@xjtu.edu.cn
作者简介: 李芦頔(1996-),女,陕西西安人,硕士研究生,主要从事土壤侵蚀过程与机理研究. E-mail:ludylee@stu.xjtu.edu.cn
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引用本文:

李芦頔,吴冰,李鑫璐,杨洁,林良国. 土壤侵蚀中的片蚀研究综述[J]. 地球科学进展, 2021, 36(7): 712-726.

Ludi LI,Bing WU,Xinlu LI,Jie YANG,Liangguo LIN. Sheet Erosion Study in Soil Erosion: A Review. Advances in Earth Science, 2021, 36(7): 712-726.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2021.057        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2021/V36/I7/712

模型试验用土试验方法颗粒组成R2NSEn参考文献
Tc=0.437(Ω-0.698)d50=0.28 mm

坡度:8.8%、17.6%、22.2%、26.8%、31.5%、 36.4%、41.4%、46.6%

单宽流量:0.625×10-3、1.250×10-3、1.875×10-3、2.500×10-3、3.125×10-3、3.750×10-3、 4.375×10-3、5.00×10-3 m2/s

-0.980.986411
Tc=0.470(Ω-0.95)

冲击砂

d50=0.326 mm

坡度:8.7%、17.6%、22.2%、26.8%、 31.5%、36.4%、41.4%、46.6%

径流速率:0.25、0.5、0.75、1.0、1.25、1.5、1.75、2.0 L/s

-0.97-6412

Tc=0.202Ω1.45

Tc=1.57×10-41Ω2.88KE16.11ea

-

降雨强度:24、60、90、120、138、150 mm/h

坡度:12.3%、17.6%、26.8%、36.4%、40.4%、46.63%

34.0%砂粒

56.1%粉粒

9.9%黏粒

0.900.7515513

Tc=0.283Ω1.266

Tc=0.178Ω1.413

Tc=0.141Ω1.423

Tc=0.117Ω1.435

Tc=0.095Ω1.441

d50=0.10 mm

d50=0.22 mm

d50=0.41 mm

d50=0.69 mm

d50=1.16 mm

单宽流量:0.66×10-3、1.32×10-3、2.63×10-3、 3.95×10-3、5.26×10-3 m2/s

坡度:8.7%、17.4%、25.9%、34.2%、42.3%

-

0.94

0.96

0.96

0.97

0.96

-

22

24

25

25

25

14
Φ=0.0413(Ω`-36.5)1.1781

绵黄土

d50=0.04 mm)

沙黄土

d50=0.095 mm)

坡度:12.23%、17.63%、26.8%、 36.4%、40.4%、46.63%

降雨强度:40、60、90、120、138、150 mm/h

沙黄土:

0.30%粗砂粒

64.9%细砂粒

22.0%粗粉粒

2.8%中粉粒

3.2%细粉粒

5.8%黏粒

0.9500.9784615

绵黄土:

36.58%细砂粒

48%粗粉粒

3.84%中粉粒

4.73%细粉粒

6.85%黏粒

SE=0.0154(Ω-0.00325)-

坡度:12.3%、17.6%、26.8%、36.4%、46.6%

降雨强度:42、60、90、120、150 mm/h

植被覆盖率:30%、40%、50%、60%、70%

70.09%砂粒

21.42%粉粒

8.49%黏粒

0.930.895016

Φ=0.03Ω*1.55

Φ=0.05Ω*1.43

细砂和粉砂

d50=0.17 mm

d50=0.53 mm

坡度:3.49%~20.9%

单宽流量:0.0667×10-3~0.3333×10-3 m2/s

-

0.82

0.95

--17
qs=0.00008Ω-0.00079黄土

降雨强度:43.8、68.4、83.4、128.4、142.2 mm/h

坡度:10.5%、17.6%、26.8%

10.25%砂粒

72.10%粉粒

17.65%黏粒

0.907-1918
Tc=0.213Ω1.25

泥沙

d50=0.28 mm

坡度:8.7%、17.4%、25.9%、34.2%、38.3%、42.3%

单宽流量:0.66×10-3、1.32×10-3、1.97×10-3、2.63×10-3、3.29×10-3、3.95×10-3、4.61×10-3、5.26×10-3 m2/s

-0.9750.9686419

Gs=10.245(Ω-3.126)

Gs=6.535(Ω-2.496)

Gs=5.168(Ω+0.36)

-

坡度:17.6%、36.4%、57.7%

流量:1.0、2.0、3.0、4.0、5.0、7.5、10 L/min

-

0.929

0.805

0.925

-

7

7

7

20
SE=0.06Ω-0.0003

沙黄土

d50=0.0039 mm

坡度:12.23%、17.63%、26.8%、 36.4%、40.4%、46.63%

降雨强度:40、60、90、120、138、150 mm/h

70.09%砂粒

21.42%粉粒

8.49%黏粒

0.970.971821
SE=7.77(Ω-0.008)黄土

坡度:12.23%、17.63%、26.8%、 36.4%、40.4%、46.63%

降雨强度:40、60、90、120、138、150 mm/h

36.21%砂粒

55.3%粉粒

8.49%黏粒

0.870.873522
表1  水流功率模型汇总[11~22]
模型试验用土试验方法颗粒组成R2NSEn参考文献
Tc=0.024qγsω-0.40.863d50=0.28 mm

坡度:8.7%、17.6%、22.2%、26.8%、31.5%、36.4%、41.4%、46.6%

单宽流量:0.625×10-3、1.250×10-3、1.875×10-3、2.500×10-3、3.125×10-3、3.750×10-3、4.375×10-3、5.00×10-3 m2/s

-0.920.926411
SE=0.0148(ω-0.0003)-

坡度:12.3%、17.6%、26.8%、36.4%、46.6%

降雨强度:42、60、90、120、150 mm/h

植被覆盖率:30%、40%、50%、60%、70%

70.09%砂粒

21.42%粉粒

8.49%黏粒

0.930.895016
Tc=2326.6ω2.89

4种砂粒

d50=0.233、0.536、0.719、1.022 mm

坡度:5.2%、8.7%、13.2%、17.6%

单宽流量:0.07×10-3~2.27×10-3 m2/s

-0.87--26
Tc=ρsqd50+50.32-0.5ω-ωucrd50+53000.25

4种砂粒

d50=0.230、0.536、0.719、1.022 mm

坡度:1.7%、3.5%、8.7%、14.1%、21.0%

单宽流量:0.20×10-3~10.0×10-3 m2/s

---43627
SE=4.45ω+2.54沙壤土

降雨强度:38.2~56.3 mm/h

坡度:2.5%、11.5%、20.5%、30%、40%

50.0%砂粒

22.0%粉粒

28.0%黏粒

0.76--28

Tc=20.648ω1.317

Tc=25.893ω1.555

Tc=23.388ω1.615

Tc=19.231ω1.601

Tc=15.311ω1.581

d50=0.10 mm

d50=0.22 mm

d50=0.41 mm

d50=0.69 mm

d50=1.16 mm

单宽流量:0.66×10-3、1.32×10-3、2.63×10-3、3.95×10-3、5.26×10-3 m2/s

坡度:8.7%、17.4%、25.9%、34.2%、42.3%

-

0.76

0.85

0.89

0.87

0.84

-

22

24

25

25

25

29
φ=3.63u*vs1.64uvs0.62ωvs-ωucrvs

5种砂粒

d50=0.058、0.127、0.218、0.414、1.098 mm

单宽流量:0.07×10-3~2.27×10-3 m2/s

坡度:5.2%、8.7%、13.2%、17.6%

---8130
Φ=0.0036ω`2.4981

沙黄土

d50=0.095 mm)

绵黄土

d50=0.04 mm)

坡度:12.23%、17.63%、26.8%、36.4%、40.4%、46.63%

降雨强度:40、60、90、120、138、

150 mm/h

沙黄土:

0.30%粗砂粒

64.9%细砂粒

22.0%粗粉粒

2.8%中粉粒

3.2%细粉粒

5.8%黏粒

绵黄土:

36.58%细砂粒

48%粗粉粒

3.84%中粉粒

4.73%细粉粒

6.85%黏粒

0.65990.756143615

Φ=0.54ω*1.57

Φ=6.26ω*2.46

细砂和粉砂

d50=0.17 mm

d50=0.53 mm

坡度:3.49%~20.9%

单宽流量0.0667×10-3~0.3333×10-3 m2/s

-

0.61

0.90

--17
SE=8.06ω-0.0025黄土

坡度:12.23%、17.63%、26.8%、 36.4%、40.4%、46.63%

降雨强度:40、60、90、120、138、

150 mm/h

36.21%砂粒

55.3%粉粒

8.49%黏粒

0.430.433521
表2  单位水流功率模型汇总[11, 15~17, 21, 26~30]
模型试验用土试验方法颗粒组成R2NSEn参考 文献
Tc=0.054τ1.982d50=0.28 mm

坡度:8.7%、17.6%、22.2%、26.8%、31.5%、 36.4%、41.4%、46.6%

单宽流量:0.625×10-3、1.250×10-3、1.875×10-3、2.500×10-3、3.125×10-3、3.750×10-3、4.375×10-3、5.00×10-3 m2/s

-0.980.976411
SE=0.0011τ1.601-

坡度:12.3%、17.6%、26.8%、36.4%、46.6%

降雨强度:42、60、90、120、150 mm/h

植被覆盖率:30%、40%、50%、60%、70%

70.09%砂粒

21.42%粉粒

8.49%黏粒

0.790.555016

Gs=137.2τ-0.642

Gs=197.56τ-12.9

Gs=286.81τ-10.91

-

坡度:17.6%、36.4%、57.7%

流量:1.0、2.0、3.0、4.0、5.0、7.5、10 L/min

-

0.925

0.805

0.929

-

7

7

7

20
SE=0.011τ-0.01沙黄土d50=0.0039 mm

坡度:12.23%、17.63%、26.8%、36.4%、40.4%、46.63%

降雨强度:40、60、90、120、138、150 mm/h

70.09%砂粒

21.42%粉粒

8.49%黏粒

0.880.881821
SE=1.26(τ-0.12)黄土

坡度:12.23%、17.63%、26.8%、36.4%、40.4%、46.63%

降雨强度:40、60、90、120、138、150 mm/h

36.21%砂粒

55.3%粉粒

8.49%黏粒

0.830.833522

Tc=0.044τ2.065

Tc=0.022τ2.294

Tc=0.018τ2.309

Tc=0.015τ2.314

Tc=0.012τ2.320

d50=0.10 mm

d50=0.22 mm

d50=0.41 mm

d50=0.69 mm

d50=1.16 mm

单宽流量:0.66×10-3、1.32×10-3、2.63×10-3、 3.95×10-3、5.26×10-3 m2/s

坡度:8.7%、17.4%、25.9%、34.2%、42.3%

-

0.95

0.97

0.97

0.97

0.97

-

22

24

25

25

25

29
Tc=ηττ-τc1.92沙土d50=0.35 mm

坡度:5.7%、10%、15%、20%、30%、40%

降雨强度:32、57、93、117 mm/h

90.0%砂粒

10.0%粉粒

---31

Φ=0.32τ*1.87

Φ=0.071τ*1.97

细砂和粉砂

d50=0.17 mm

d50=0.53 mm

坡度:3.49%~20.9%

单宽流量:0.0667×10-3~0.3333×10-3 m2/s

-

0.67

0.75

--17
Tc=0.015τ1.86-

坡度:12.3%、17.6%、26.8%、36.4%、40.4%、46.63%

降雨强度:24、60、90、120、138、150 mm/h

34.0%砂粒

56.1%粉粒

9.9%黏粒

0.530.3215514
SE=0.0084τ-0.0184-

单宽流量:0.25×10-3、0.50×10-3、1.0×10-3、 1.5×10-3、2.0×10-3 m2/s

坡度:8.7%、17.6%、26.8%、36.4%、46.6%

7.9%砂粒

66.7%粉粒

25.4%黏粒

0.89--32
表3  水流剪切力模型汇总表[11, 14, 16, 17, 20~22, 29, 31, 32]
模型试验条件颗粒组成参数值R2NSEn参考文献
Di=KiI2------110
Di=KiISQ------111
SE=7.5×10-12S1.43I3.04

试验用土:沙黄土d50=0.0039 mm

坡度:12.23%、17.63%、26.8%、36.4%、

40.4%、46.63%

降雨强度:40、60、90、120、138、150 mm/h

70.09%砂粒

21.42%粉粒

8.49%黏粒

-0.9500.871821
Di=KiIQ12S23

试验用土:Cecil沙壤土,Dyke黏土

坡度:8.7%、17.6%、26.8%、36.4%

降雨强度:42、62、78、90 mm/h

Cecil沙壤土:

69%砂粒

20%粉粒

11%黏粒

Ki=0.400.969--112

Dyke黏土:

27%砂粒

33%粉粒

40%黏粒

Ki=0.270.692
Di=KiIQS23

试验用土:黄土

坡度:1.4%、6.1%

降雨强度:30、66、102、138、162、174 mm/h

-Ki:1 113.6~ 10 135.9---113
Di=KiRI0.22SfL-0.25

试验用土:黄绵土

坡度:17%、27%、36%、47%、58%

降雨强度:48、62.4、102、149、170 mm/h

38.72%砂粒

45.59%粉粒

15.69%黏粒

0.53%有机质

Ki:221~1 049---114
Di=KiIQSf

坡度:3.0%、6.0%、50.0%

降雨强度:63 mm/h

-----115
Di=KiISfQmLn

试验用土:黄绵土

坡度:17.6%、26.8%、36.4%、46.6%、57.7%

降雨强度:48、62、102、149、170 mm/h

39%沙粒

45%粉粒

16%黏粒

0.5%有机质

Ki=132.9

m=0.242,

n=-0.137

---116
Di=KiI0.91S0.91Q1.76eP

试验条件:淋溶黏壤土

坡度:8.7%、17.6%

降雨强度:30、60、90 mm/h

沙粒:13.7%

粉粒:54.2%

黏粒:32.1%

Ki=2.59×10-20.9200.92219117
Di=KiI0.91S0.91Q1.76epL1.62

试验用土:淋溶黏壤土

坡度:8.75%

降雨强度:30、60、90 mm/h

13.7%砂粒

54.2%粉粒

32.1%黏粒

Ki=0.03

(渗流状态)

0.970(渗流状态)-15(渗流状态)118

Ki=0.04

(饱和状态)

0.810(饱和状态)-30(渗流状态)
Di=0.34AsI2(1.05-0.85exp-4sinθ

坡度:10%~20%

降雨强度:31.2±1.4、61.2±2.2 mm/h

--0.870--119
Di=0.34AsqI(1.05-0.85exp-4sinθ0.890
M=2.9405E`-0.0574

试验用土:沙黄土d50=0.095 mm

坡度:15.8%、21.3%、26.8%、32.5%、38.4%

降雨强度:60、79.8、100.2、120、139.8 mm/h

65.2%砂粒

28%粉粒

5.8%黏粒

-0.854-252
A=αkEm(Epu)n

试验用土:黄土母质性黄绵土

坡度:17.6%、26.8%、36.3%、

46.6%、57.7%、70.0%

-

松动表土:

αk=10.1432

m=0,n=1.290

松动表土:

R=0.866

--65

不松动表土:

αk=1.0931

m=0.39,n=0.812

不松动表土:R=0.792--
G0=K1S2+K2S+K3

松动表土:

K1=-12.26

K2=762.43

K3=-3 991.90

松动表土:

R=0.982

--

不松动表土:

K1=-2.03

K2=154.07

K3=214.67

不松动表土:R=0.968--
A=0.074K0.78KE3.72

试验用土:黄绵土、黑土、红壤

坡度:17.6%

降雨强度:50、100 mm/h

黄土: 28.3%砂粒,58.1%粉粒,13.6%黏粒-0.860-80120
黑土: 3.3%砂粒,76.4%粉粒,20.3%黏粒
红壤: 6.4%砂粒,76.6%粉粒,17.0%黏粒
表4  片蚀模型汇总[2, 21, 65, 110~120]
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