Please wait a minute...
img img
高级检索
地球科学进展  2013, Vol. 28 Issue (7): 802-811    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2013.07.0802
研究论文     
崩岗地貌发育的土体物理性质及其土壤侵蚀意义——以广东五华县莲塘岗崩岗为例
刘希林1,2,张大林1,贾瑶瑶1
1.中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广东 广州 510275; 
2.广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室,广东 广州 510275
Soil Physical Properties of Collapsing Hill and Gully and Their Indications for Soil Erosion: An Example of Liantanggang Collapsing Hill  and Gully in Wuhua County of Guangdong
Liu Xilin1,2, Zhang Dalin1, Jia Yaoyao1
1.School of Geography  and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
2.Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-simulation, Guangzhou 510275, China
 全文: PDF(1268 KB)  
摘要:

摘要:崩岗集中发育在我国广东、福建等东南7省(自治区),面积约5万km2,是华南地区土壤侵蚀最严重的区域。崩岗是水力—重力复合侵蚀交替作用的产物,也是沟谷侵蚀发展的结果。崩岗主要发育在花岗岩厚层风化壳上,崩岗土体以高黏粒、低砾石含量的粗砂土为基本特征。崩岗崩积锥土体粒径自坡顶至坡脚由粗变细,反映出坡面流水的侵蚀和搬运过程。崩岗土体可蚀性强,可蚀性因子K值平均为0.26,比花岗岩红壤地区的平均K值高0.03~0.05。崩积锥坡脚K值大于坡顶,即坡脚可蚀性大于坡顶。崩岗崩壁和崩积锥土体的平均黏粒含量为10.13%,大于5%这一泥石流形成的必要条件。崩岗流[JP2]域地形陡峻,一旦遭遇强降雨,有条件转化成“泥石流”。崩岗形成的“泥石流”平均中值粒径仅为常规泥石流的1/12,砾石含量仅为1/4。因此,崩岗型泥石流(即由崩岗转化成的“泥石流”)并不是通常意义上的泥石流,是广义泥石流大类中的一个新种——泥砂流。

关键词: 崩岗地貌崩岗土体土壤侵蚀泥砂流    
Abstract:

Collapsing hills  and gullies concentrating in  7 provinces (autonomous regions) of southeast China, mainly in Guangdong and Fujian with a total area of approximate 50 000 km2, are the most serious area of soil erosion in southeast China. Collapsing hill and gully is resulted from the hydraulic-gravity compound erosion, and  is the result of gully erosion. In southeast China, Collapsing hills and gullies mainly generate on the thick layer of weathering crust of granite. High viscous clay and low coarse gravel are the main feature of the collapsing soil. The average median grain size of the collapsing soils from top to toe shows a change from coarseness to fine, reflecting the erosion and transportation processes of running water on slope. The soil of collapsing hill and gully is easily erodible. The erodible factor K value averagely is about 0.26, more than 0.03 to 0.05 compared with the K value of red soil in southeast China. The K value of the collapsing soils is greater in slope foot than that on the top, indicating the erosion at the slope toe is greater than that on the top, which provides a new interpretation for the mechanism of the collapse hill and gully processes. The collapsing wall and colluvial deposits have 10.53% clay content, more than 5% of the necessary requirement for debris flow initiation. When steep collapsing hill and gully terrains are coupled with the appropriate rainfalls,  may be transformed into “debris flow”, but the debris flow’s grain size is much smaller (only about 1/12) than that of the conventional debris flow, and gravel content is only a quarter of the debris flow. Therefore, the collapsing hill and gully transformed into debris flow (namely the collapsing hill transformed into debris flow) is not the conventional sense of debris flow, and it is a new debris flow subtype: Clay sand flow.

Key words: Collapsing hill    Collapsing Soils    Soil erosion    Clay sand flow
收稿日期: 2013-01-18 出版日期: 2013-07-10
:  P934  
基金资助:

基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“华南崩岗溯源侵蚀与泥石流启动和形成的试验研究”(编号:41071186)资助.

通讯作者: 刘希林(1963-),男,湖南新邵人,教授,主要从事灾害地貌(泥石流)过程及评估和预测研究.     E-mail: liuxilin@mail.sysu.edu.cn
作者简介: 作者简介:刘希林(1963-),男,湖南新邵人,教授,主要从事灾害地貌(泥石流)过程及评估和预测研究.E-mail:liuxilin@mail.sysu.edu.cn
服务  
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章  
刘希林
张大林
贾瑶瑶

引用本文:

刘希林,张大林,贾瑶瑶. 崩岗地貌发育的土体物理性质及其土壤侵蚀意义——以广东五华县莲塘岗崩岗为例[J]. 地球科学进展, 2013, 28(7): 802-811.

Liu Xilin, Zhang Dalin, Jia Yaoyao. Soil Physical Properties of Collapsing Hill and Gully and Their Indications for Soil Erosion: An Example of Liantanggang Collapsing Hill  and Gully in Wuhua County of Guangdong. Advances in Earth Science, 2013, 28(7): 802-811.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2013.07.0802        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2013/V28/I7/802

[1]Qiu Shijun. Cutting-toppling: One of patterns of slop disintegration erosion[J].Bulletin of Soil and Water Conservation, 1999, 19(6): 20-22.[丘世钧. 切割下坠——砂页岩地区崩岗源头墙壁后退方式之一[J]. 水土保持通报, 1999,19(6): 20-22.]

[2]Zhao Hui, Luo Jianmin. Analysis on genesis erosion of dilapidated granite and approach to integrated system of prevention and control in Hu’nan[J]. Soil and Water Conservation in China, 2006, (5):1-3.[赵辉, 罗建民. 湖南崩岗侵蚀成因及综合防治体系探讨[J]. 中国水土保持, 2006, (5):1-3.]

[3]Li Siping. The geotechnical essence of the collapsed gully forming in Guangdong[J]. Soil and Water Conservation in Fujian, 1991, (4): 28-33.[李思平. 广东崩岗形成的岩土本质[J]. 福建水土保持, 1991, (4): 28-33.]

[4]Li Siping. A study on characteristics of rock-soil and countermeasures of the collapsed mound formation[J]. Journal of Soil Water Conservation, 1992, 6(3): 29-35.[李思平. 崩岗形成的岩土特性及其防治对策的研究[J]. 水土保持学报, 1992, 6(3): 29-35.]

[5]Wu Zhifeng, Wang Jizeng. Relationship between slope disintegration and rock soil characteristics of granite weathering mantle in South China[J].Journal of Soil Water Conservation, 2000, 14(2): 31-35.[吴志峰, 王继增. 华南花岗岩风化壳岩土特性与崩岗侵蚀关系[J]. 水土保持学报, 2000, 14(2): 31-35.]

[6]Ge Hongli, Huang Yanhe, Jiang Fangshi, et al. Analysis on the rock types in the collapse hill area[J]. Subtropical Soil and Water Conservation, 2012, 24(1):13-19.[葛宏力, 黄炎和, 蒋芳市, 等. 崩岗发生区岩土类型分析[J]. 亚热带水土保持, 2012, 24(1):13-19.]

[7]Wang Xueqiang, Cai Qiangguo, He Jijun, et al. Influence of the level characteristics of granite weathering crust on soil erosion and control measures[J]. Subtropical Soil and Water Conservation, 2008, 20(2):20-24.[王学强, 蔡强国, 和继军, 等. 花岗岩风化壳的层次特性对土壤侵蚀及其防治措施的影响[J]. 亚热带水土保持, 2008, 20(2):20-24.]

[8]Wang Yanzhong, Hu Yaoguo, Li Dingqiang, et al. The preliminary investigation of soil erosive factors in granitic weathering rinds in western Guangdong Province[J]. Ecology and Environment, 2008, 17(1): 403-410.[王艳忠, 胡耀国, 李定强, 等. 粤西典型崩岗侵蚀剖面可蚀性因子初步分析[J]. 生态环境, 2008, 17(1): 403-410.]

[9]Lu Dong, Hu Yaoguo, Peng Siqing, et al. Application of shallow earth temperature survey in investigating the relationships of spatial distribution between the typical weathering slope collapse and groundwater[J]. Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2011, 20(2): 208-216.[卢冬, 胡耀国, 彭四清, 等. 应用浅层地温测量法分析崩岗侵蚀与地下水分布关系[J]. 生态环境学报, 2011, 20(2): 208-216.]

[10]Zhang Dalin, Liu Xilin. Evolution and phases division of collapsed gully erosion landform[J]. Journal of Subtropical Resources and Environment, 2011, 6(2): 23-28.[张大林, 刘希林. 崩岗侵蚀地貌的演变过程及阶段划分[J]. 亚热带资源与环境学报, 2011, 6(2): 23-28.]

[11]White S E. Alpine mass movement forms (noncatastrophic): Classification, description, and significance[J].Arctic and Alpine Research, 1981, 13(2): 127-137.

[12]Liu Xilin, Tan Yonggui. Recognition and development of basic ideas of modern geomorphology[J]. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Sunyatseni,2012, 51(4):112-118.[刘希林, 谭永贵. 现代地貌学基本思想的认识和发展[J]. 中山大学学报:自然科学版, 2012, 51(4):112-118.]

[13]Jiao Bintian, Lu Xiaobing, Wang Shuyun, et al. The movement of fine grains and its effects on the landslide and debris flow caused by raining[J]. Chinese Journal of Underground Space and Engineering, 2005, 1(7): 1 014-1 016.[矫滨田, 鲁晓兵, 王淑云, 等. 土体降雨滑坡中细颗粒运移及效应[J]. 地下空间与工程学报, 2005, 1(7): 1 014-1 016.]

[14]Wischmeier W H, Jhonson C B, Cross B V. A soil erodibility nomograph for farmland and construction sites[J]. Soil Water Conserve, 1971, 26: 189-193.

[15]Sharply A N, Williams J R. EPIC-erosion/productivity impact calculator: 1. Model documentation[J]. Technical Bulletin-United States Department of Agriculture, 1990,(1 768):235.

[16]Lü Xixi, Shen Rongming. A preliminary study on the values K of soil erosibility factor[J]. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 1992, 6(1): 63-70.[吕喜玺, 沈荣明. 土壤可蚀性因子K值的初步研究[J]. 水土保持学报, 1992, 6(1): 63-70.]

[17]Men Mingxin, Zhao Tongke, Peng Zhengping, et al. Study on the soil erodibility based on the soil particle-size distribution in Hebei Province[J].Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2004, 37(11): 1 647-1 653.[门明新, 赵同科, 彭正萍, 等. 基于土壤粒径分布模型的河北省土壤可蚀性研究[J]. 中国农业科学, 2004, 37(11): 1 647-1 653.]

[18]Cen Yi, Ding Wenfeng, Zhang Pingcang. Spatial distribution of soil erodibility factor(K) in Central China[J].Journal of Yangtze River Scientific Research Institute,2011, 28(10): 65-68.[岑奕, 丁文峰, 张平仓. 华中地区土壤可蚀性因子研究[J]. 长江科学院院报, 2011, 28(10): 65-68.]

[19]Liu Qingxuan, Wu Xiangnan. Experiences and methods of collapsing hills control in Meixian county[J]. Soil and Water Conservation in China, 1991, (4):8-13.[刘庆宣, 巫祥南. 梅县治理崩岗泥石流的经验和做法[J]. 中国水土保持, 1991,(4): 8-13.]

[20]Feng Minghan, Liao Chunyan, Li Shuangxi, et al. Investigation on status of collapsing hill and soil erosion in southern China[J].Yangtze River, 2009, 40(8): 66-68.[冯明汉, 廖纯艳, 李双喜, 等. 我国南方崩岗侵蚀现状调查[J]. 人民长江, 2009, 40(8): 66-68.]

[21]Gregoretti C. Experimental evidence from the triggering of debris flow along a granular slope[J]. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere, 2000, 25(4): 387-390.

[22]Wu Jishan, Kang Zhicheng, Tian Lianquan, et al. Observational Studies on Debris Flows in Jiangjiagou, Yunnan[M]. Beijing: Science Press, 1990: 63-68.[吴积善, 康志成, 田连权,等. 云南蒋家沟泥石流观测研究[M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 1990: 63-68.]

[23]Kang Zhicheng, Li Zhuofen, Ma Ainai, et al.Debris Flow in China[M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2004.[康志成, 李焯芬, 马蔼乃,等. 中国泥石流研究[M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 2004.]

[24]Pierson T C. Dominant particle support mechanisms in debris flows at Mt.Thmas, New Zealand, and implications for flow mobility[J]. Sedimentology, 1987, 28: 49-60.

[25]Chen Zhongxue, Wang Ren, Hu Mingjian, et al. Study of content of clay particles for debris flow occurrence in Jiangjia Ravine[J]. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 2010, 31(7): 2 197-2 201.[陈中学, 汪稔, 胡明鉴, 等. 黏土颗粒含量对蒋家沟泥石流启动影响分析[J]. 岩土力学, 2010, 31(7): 2 197-2 201.]

[1] 张琪琳, 王占礼, 王栋栋, 刘俊娥. 黄土高原草地植被对土壤侵蚀影响研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2017, 32(10): 1093-1101.
[2] 史忠林, 文安邦, 严冬春, 龙翼, 周萍. 7Be法估算土壤侵蚀速率若干问题的探讨[J]. 地球科学进展, 2016, 31(9): 885-893.
[3] 张大林, 刘希林. 崩岗泥砂流粒度特性及流体类型分析——以广东五华县莲塘岗崩岗为例[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(7): 810-818.
[4] 戴海伦, 金复鑫, 张科利. 国内外风蚀监测方法回顾与评述[J]. 地球科学进展, 2011, 26(4): 401-408.
[5] 马乐宽,李天宏,刘国彬. 基于水土保持的流域生态环境需水研究[J]. 地球科学进展, 2008, 23(10): 1102-1110.
[6] 杨勤科,李锐,曹明明. 区域土壤侵蚀定量研究的国内外进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2006, 21(8): 849-856.
[7] 张风宝;杨明义;赵晓光;刘普灵. 磁性示踪在土壤侵蚀研究中的应用进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2005, 20(7): 751-756.
[8] 王兆印;郭彦彪;李昌志;王费新. 植被—侵蚀状态图在典型流域的应用[J]. 地球科学进展, 2005, 20(2): 149-157.
[9] 李立青;杨明义;刘普灵;王晓燕;田均良. 137 Cs示踪农耕地土壤侵蚀速率模型的比较研究[J]. 地球科学进展, 2004, 19(1): 32-037.
[10] 张岩,张清春,刘宝元. 降水变化对陕北黄土高原植被覆盖度和高度的影响[J]. 地球科学进展, 2002, 17(2): 268-272.
[11] 谢云,刘宝元,伍永秋. 切沟中土壤水分的空间变化特征[J]. 地球科学进展, 2002, 17(2): 278-282.
[12] 符素华,刘宝元. 土壤侵蚀量预报模型研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2002, 17(1): 78-84.
[13] 唐翔宇,杨浩,李仁英,赵其国. 7Be在土壤侵蚀示踪中的应用研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2001, 16(4): 520-525.
[14] 唐翔宇,杨 浩,赵其国,李仁英,朱振华,濮励杰. 137Cs示踪技术在土壤侵蚀估算中的应用研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2000, 15(5): 576-582.
[15] 唐小明,李长安. 土壤侵蚀速率研究方法综述[J]. 地球科学进展, 1999, 14(3): 274-278.