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地球科学进展  2020, Vol. 35 Issue (2): 124-136    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2020.015
综述与评述     
水下沉积物重力流与海底扇相模式研究进展
傅焓埔(),刘群,胡修棉()
南京大学地球科学与工程学院, 江苏 南京 210023
Review on Subaqueous Sediment Gravity Flow and Submarine Fan
Hanpu Fu(),Qun Liu,Xiumian Hu()
School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
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摘要:

水下沉积物重力流将大量沉积物搬运至海底,形成了地球上最大的沉积体系——海底扇。综合前人研究成果,梳理水下沉积物重力流的基本概念、分类和识别标志,介绍了现代观测的重要结果和海底扇相模式的研究进展。浊流和碎屑流是重力流最主要的两类流体,浊流为逐层沉积,发育正粒序;碎屑流为整体沉积,垂向无序。由浊流转换为碎屑流的重力流称混合流,陆上洪水入海(湖)形成的浊流称异重流。现代观测的结果表明:浊流底部存在高密度层,横向结构并不都是涌浪型,浊流的持续时间可以长达1周。海底扇通常采用组构分析和层级分类进行研究,由水道、天然堤、朵体、远洋—半远洋沉积和块体搬运沉积组成。水道侧向延伸窄,发育侵蚀结构;天然堤由薄层泥—粉砂质浊积岩组成,横向呈楔形变薄;朵体侧向延伸宽,颗粒粒度集中,侵蚀结构较少。水道的层级从低到高依次为水道单元、水道复合体和水道复合体群。朵体的层级从低到高依次为层、朵体元素、朵体和朵体复合体。

关键词: 水下沉积物重力流浊流碎屑流海底扇水道朵体    
Abstract:

Subaqueous sediment gravity flow is the volumetrically most important process transporting sediment across our planet, which forms its largest sediment accumulations (submarine fan). Based on the previous studies, we tried to clear up the concept, classification and identification of subaqueous sediment gravity flow, and introduced the progress of modern direct observation and submarine fan model. Turbidity current and debris flow are two of the most important parts of the gravity flow, the former deposits layer by layer with normal gradation while the latter is en masse settling with chaotic disorder. The turbidity current transformed into the debris flow during the transportation is called hybrid flow. The hyperpycnal flow is the turbidity current formed by flood discharges into the ocean/lake. Modern direct observations show that the turbidity current can contain dense basal layers and last for a week. The structure of turbidity current can be different from those surge-like turbidity current observed in laboratory. Submarine fans are mainly composed of channel, levee, lobe, background deposits and mass transport deposits, which should be studied by architecture analysis and hierarchical classification. The channel deposits extend narrowly with abundant erosion structures; levee deposits are composed of thin layer mud-silty turbidites, wedge thinning laterally; the lobe deposits extend well laterally with narrow range of grain size. The hierarchy of channel deposits is channel unit, channel complex and channel complex system. The hierarchy of lobe deposits is bed, lobe element, lobe and lobe complex.

Key words: Subaqueous sediment gravity flow    Turbidity current    Debris flow    Submarine fan    Channel    Lobe.
收稿日期: 2019-12-05 出版日期: 2020-03-24
ZTFLH:  P512.2  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金杰出青年科学基金项目“沉积学”(41525007)
通信作者: 胡修棉     E-mail: huxm@nju.edu.cn
作者简介: 傅焓埔(1993-),男,浙江金华人,博士研究生,主要从事沉积大地构造研究. E-mail: hanpufunju@163.com
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傅焓埔, 刘群, 胡修棉. 水下沉积物重力流与海底扇相模式研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2020, 35(2): 124-136.

Hanpu Fu, Qun Liu, Xiumian Hu. Review on Subaqueous Sediment Gravity Flow and Submarine Fan. Advances in Earth Science, 2020, 35(2): 124-136.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2020.015        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2020/V35/I2/124

流体性质流体类型沉积物支撑机制
液态流体态流浊流低密度浊流流体紊流
高密度浊流
流体化流逃逸孔隙流体(完全支撑)
液化流逃逸孔隙流体(部分支撑)
塑性碎屑流

颗粒流

泥流或黏性碎屑流

基质强度为主、离散压力
表1  水下沉积物重力流的分类(据参考文献[28]修改)
图1  水下沉积物重力流的分类(据参考文献[29]修改)
水下沉积物重力流流体类型沉积特征沉积物支撑机制
浊流低密度浊流逐层沉积加积慢,发育包括交错层理在内的各种底形,浊积层侧向减薄流体紊流
高密度浊流加积快,块状或发育平行层理,侧向层厚较稳定抑制的紊流,颗粒间相互作用和孔隙压力
碎屑流低强度碎屑流整体沉积沉积厚度小于1 m,碎屑直径不超过数毫米基质强度为主,同时存在孔隙压力,浮力和颗粒间相互作用
中强度碎屑流沉积厚度小于2 m,碎屑直径可至数米
高强度碎屑流沉积厚度大于10 m,碎屑直径可超过10 m
表2  对水下沉积物重力流的分类[3]
图2  水下沉积物重力流的沉积序列[3,34,35](a) 浊流沉积,显示正递变与牵引流结构[3];(b) 碎屑流沉积,整体混乱无序[3];(c) 混合流沉积,底部为浊流沉积,向上为碎屑流沉积,顶部为稀释的浊流沉积[34];(d) 异重流沉积,底部发育逆粒序,向上为典型浊流沉积,发育侵蚀界面[35]
图3  水下沉积物重力流沉积的野外照片(a) 发育鲍马序列的浊流沉积,Ta发育正粒序,Tb发育平行层理,Tc发育交错层理,Td发育水平层理;(b)块状厚层砂岩,无粒序;(c) 碎屑流沉积与浊流沉积,其中碎屑流沉积含大量杂乱无序的碎屑[36];(d) 混合流沉积,见“三明治结构”,由底部的浊流沉积、中间的碎屑流沉积和顶部较为稀释的浊流沉积组成
图4  异重流航拍照片[35]流体在下潜区后沿海底运动,箭头指示水流方向
图5  刚果峡谷与实验模拟的浊流结构对比[21](a) 实验模拟的涌浪式浊流结构,头部大而慢;(b) 刚果峡谷的浊流结构,头部小而快;红色实线指示流体最大速率,蓝色虚线指示流体某一时刻的垂向速率剖面,箭头指示流体相对前缘的运动方向,箭头越长速率越小
图6  蒙特利峡谷浊流演化图[22]
图7  海底扇沉积单元组成示意图[58]
图8  海底扇水道类型示意图[56]
图9  海底扇沉积单元的野外照片(a) 水道沉积,沉积物颗粒粗(粗砂—砾),底部发育槽模;(b) 天然堤与水道沉积,天然堤沉积物颗粒细(泥—粉砂),水道底部发育槽模;(c) 朵体沉积,砂岩层侧向延伸良好[66]
图10  海底扇水道单元模式[54](a) 欠充填水道单元,发育加积天然堤,半合并化的不同岩相,泥质/粉砂质盖层,向上变细的废弃相;(b)充填水道单元,发育欠加积天然堤/漫滩沉积,合并化的相似岩相,缺少泥质/粉砂质盖层和废弃相
图11  朵体层级分类[69,70](a) 垂向剖面图[69]; (b) 平面图[70]; (c) 野外照片[69]; B: 层,LE: 朵体元素,L: 朵体,LC: 朵复合体
图12  朵体受限类型示意图[71](a) 完全受限;(b) 侧向受限;(c) 前缘受限;(d) 不受限;箭头指示水流方向
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