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地球科学进展  2017, Vol. 32 Issue (12): 1277-1286    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2017.12.1277
大洋钻探科学目标展望     
深部生物圈研究进展与展望
王风平1,2(), 陈云如1,2
1.上海交通大学微生物代谢国家重点实验室,上海 200240
2.上海交通大学生命科学技术学院,上海 200240
Progress and Prospect in Deep Biosphere Investigation
Fengping Wang1,2(), Yunru Chen1,2
1.State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
2.School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
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摘要:

发现海底沉积物深处乃至岩石中仍然有生命,是“大洋钻探计划”开展近半个世纪以来最令人激动的重要发现之一,即大洋“深部生物圈”的发现。近年来,深部生物圈的发现与探索已成为地质学和生物学领域最令人兴奋的研究前沿之一,生物圈前沿即深部生命、生物多样性和环境驱动的生态系统成为新的国际大洋发现计划(IODP 2013-2023)的四大研究主题之一。通过对深部生物圈研究历史进行简单回顾,介绍深部生物圈及其环境特征,目前已经完成的以探究地壳和海洋沉积物中生物圈为目标的大洋钻探计划(IODP)航次,深部生物圈研究的前沿科学问题,已经取得的重大研究进展和面临的挑战,以及中国科学家的贡献和深部生物圈的未来发展的建议与展望。

关键词: 深部生物圈大洋钻探暗能量生命极限    
Abstract:

The discovery of living microorganisms deep in the marine sediments and even in the oceanic crust (the marine “deep biosphere”), is one of the most significant and exciting discoveries since the ocean drilling program began almost a half-century ago. Investigation of the deep biosphere has become the most thrilling research frontier for both geological and biological sciences. The “biosphere frontiers” has been listed as one of the four themes in the 10-year plan of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP 2012-2023), including deep life, biodiversity and environmental forcing of ecosystems. Here, we introduced the deep biosphere and its environmental features, several completed Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions, which targeted the subseafloor deep biosphere within the crust and sediments, and highlighted the main progress we have made in deep biosphere and deep life research, especially the contribution of Chinese scientists. Finally, we will give a perspective on the future of deep biosphere research according to the challenge we are facing and the key questions need to be answered.

Key words: Deep biosphere    Ocean drilling    Dark energy    Limits of life.
收稿日期: 2017-10-16 出版日期: 2018-03-06
ZTFLH:  P735  
基金资助: *国家自然科学基金项目“深部生物圈生物地球化学功能研究”(编号:41525011);国家自然科学基金委员会与以色列科学基金会合作研究项目“海洋沉积物深层(产甲烷带)微生介导的铁还原作用研究”(编号:31661143022)资助.
作者简介:

作者简介:王风平(1971-),女,湖北丹江口人,教授,主要从事深部生物圈研究.E-mail:fengpingw@stju.edu.cn

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引用本文:

王风平, 陈云如. 深部生物圈研究进展与展望[J]. 地球科学进展, 2017, 32(12): 1277-1286.

Fengping Wang, Yunru Chen. Progress and Prospect in Deep Biosphere Investigation. Advances in Earth Science, 2017, 32(12): 1277-1286.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2017.12.1277        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2017/V32/I12/1277

图1  海洋沉积物中深古菌介导的碳循环示意图深古菌的一些类群具有丰富多样的代谢方式,既可以降解环境中的一些难降解的大分子如芳香化合物、几丁质、纤维素和蛋白质等,发酵产生乙酸等小分子化合物,也可以利用二氧化碳和H2自养产乙酸途径获取能量。深古菌产生的乙酸是重要的电子载体,可以被甲烷产生菌和异养细菌所利用,是深部碳循环和生态系统的重要驱动者
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