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地球科学进展  2015, Vol. 30 Issue (3): 323-333    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2015.03.0323
综述与评述     
冰核对云物理属性和降水影响的研究
尹金方1, 王东海1, 许焕斌2, 翟国庆3, 姜晓玲1
1.中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室,北京 100081; 2.北京应用气象研究所,北京100081; 3.浙江大学地球科学系,浙江 杭州 310027
A Study of the Effects of Ice Nuclei on Cloud Microphysical Properties and Precipitation
Yin Jinfang1, Wang Donghai1, Xu Huangbin2, Zhai Guoqing3, Jiang Xiaoling1
1. State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China; 2. Beijing Institute of Applied Meteorology, Beijing 100081; 3. Department of Earth Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
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摘要:

系统回顾了冰核对云和降水影响的研究进展,详细分析了冰核对云的宏微观特征、对流系统结构和强度、辐射、雷电、降水量和降水强度的影响途径,并从云微物理过程的角度解释了其影响机制。得到如下结论:①通常情况下,冰核浓度增加,冰晶浓度增大,云滴浓度减小,云的生命史延长;②对于发展阶段的对流云,冰核在温度较高的过冷区活化使潜热在中低层提早释放,增加了对流系统中层不稳定能量,促进了对流系统的发展;③卷云中冰核浓度的增加,改变了冰相水物质与液相水物质的比例;削弱或抑制了卷云中同质核化,增大了卷云中冰晶粒子的平均半径;④冰核浓度的增加,能够使到达地气系统的净辐射增加;⑤冰核浓度的变化能够引起雷电活动发生频次和强度的变化;⑥冰核浓度增加,引起降水量的变化不确定,即降水量增加、减少或者变化不显著的情况都可能存在。这些结果为改进数值模式中冰核活化参数化方法提供指导,从而提高数值模式对云和降水的预报能力;同时为人工影响天气选择合适的人工催化剂和撒播时机提供参考。

关键词: 降水量云物理属性降水强度冰核    
Abstract:

An overview of the progresses in the effects of Ice Nuclei (IN) on cloud microphysical properties and precipitation was made in this study. Detailed analysis of the effects of IN on cloud macro- and micro-physical characteristics, convective system, lighting, precipitation intensity and amount was accomplished, and explanations were proposed for those effects in view of the cloud microphysical processes of IN related. The results show that: ①in general, increasing IN leads to the increasing of ice crystal number concentration, reducing of cloud droplet number concentration, and extending of cloud lifetime; ②increase in IN concentration in developing convective cloud causes early release of latent heat at sub-cooling region at middle level cloud faction, which enhances instability energy in middle level clouds and thus promotes the development of convective system; ③the ratio of ice water content and liquid water content is altered and the homogeneous freezing process is reduced or suppressed due to increasing IN concentration in cirrus cloud, but has a significant contribution to the mean ice crystal size; ④as IN concentration increases, the earth-atmosphere system net radiative forcing increases; ⑤both lightning frequency and intensity can be modified by altering IN concentration in cloud; and ⑥the effect of increaing IN concentration on rainfall amount is indefinite, that is, increasing IN concentration can lead to increase, decrease, little change of the total amount of rainfall.

Key words: Ice nuclei    Precipitation intensity.    Cloud properties    Precipitation amount
出版日期: 2015-03-20
ZTFLH:  P435  
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目“高污染区大气冰核活化参数化方法及对强降水影响的研究”(编号:41405006); 中国气象科学研究院基本业务专项“冰核对强降水启动和强度的研究”(编号:2014R016)资助

作者简介: 作者简介:尹金方(1984-), 男, 贵州盘县人,副研究员,主要从事云—降水微物理学和云微物理参数化方案研究. E-mail: yinjf@cams.cma.gov.cn
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引用本文:

尹金方, 王东海, 许焕斌, 翟国庆, 姜晓玲. 冰核对云物理属性和降水影响的研究[J]. 地球科学进展, 2015, 30(3): 323-333.

Yin Jinfang, Wang Donghai, Xu Huangbin, Zhai Guoqing, Jiang Xiaoling. A Study of the Effects of Ice Nuclei on Cloud Microphysical Properties and Precipitation. Advances in Earth Science, 2015, 30(3): 323-333.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2015.03.0323        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2015/V30/I3/323

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