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地球科学进展  2015, Vol. 30 Issue (3): 310-322    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2015.03.0310
综述与评述     
岩石圈地幔中的金刚石及其矿物包裹体的研究进展
赵欣, 施光海, 张骥
中国地质大学(北京)珠宝学院,北京 100083
Review on Lithospheric Diamonds and Their Mineral Inclusions
Zhao Xin, Shi Guanghai, Zhang Ji
School of Gemmology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 1000083
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摘要:

金刚石及封存于其中的矿物包裹体对于研究金刚石的成因以及古老岩石圈地幔、超深地幔的性质和地幔过程具有重要的研究意义,是国内外地质学家们的研究热点。大多数金刚石来源于岩石圈地幔,根据包裹体相对于寄主金刚石形成的时间可分为先成包裹体、同生包裹体和后生包裹体,包裹体属于哪种类型直接关系到数据所代表的意义,根据包裹体源区的岩石类型,通常将包裹体分为P/U型和E型,介绍了2种类型包裹体包含的矿物种类,并对出现较多的橄榄石、单斜辉石、斜方辉石、石榴石、铬铁矿和硫化物包裹体的矿物学特征进行了详细描述,归纳了金刚石及其矿物包裹体的主要研究方向:包裹体矿物的化学成分、金刚石的碳同位素组成、金刚石形成的温度、压力及年龄,综述了克拉通岩石圈地幔金刚石及其矿物包裹体的成因,总结了我国金刚石中包裹体的研究成果,分析了国内研究工作与国际上的差距。

关键词: 金刚石岩石圈地幔矿物包裹体    
Abstract:

Diamonds and their mineral inclusions are valuable for studying the genesis of diamonds, the characteristics and processes of ancient lithospheric mantle and deeper mantle. This has been paid lots of attentions by geologists both at home and abroad. Most diamonds come from lithospheric mantle. According to their formation preceded, accompanied or followed crystallization of their host diamonds, mineral inclusions in diamonds are divided into three groups: protogenetic, syngenetic and epigenetic. To determine which group the mineral inclusions belong to is very important because it is vital for understanding the data’s meaning. According to the type of mantle source rocks, mineral inclusions in diamonds are usually divided into peridotitic (or ultramafic) suite and eclogitic suite. The mineral species of each suite are described and mineralogical characteristics of most common inclusions in diamonds, such as olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, garnet, chromite and sulfide are reviewed in detail. In this paper, the main research fields and findings of diamonds and their inclusions were described: ①getting knowledge of mineralogical and petrologic characteristics of diamond source areas, characteristics of mantle fluids and mantle dynamics processes by studying the major element and trace element compositions of mineral inclusions; ②discussing deep carbon cycle by studying carbon isotopic composition of diamonds; ③determining forming temperature and pressure of diamonds by using appropriate assemblages of mineral inclusions or single mineral inclusion as geothermobarometry, by using the abundance and aggregation of nitrogen impurities in diamonds and by measuring the residual stress that an inclusion remains under within a diamond ; ④estimating the crystallization ages of diamonds by using the aggregation of nitrogen impurities in diamonds and by determine the radiometric ages of syngenetic mineral inclusions in diamonds. Genetic model of craton lithospheric diamonds and their mineral inclusion were also introduced. In the end, the research progress on diamonds and their inclusions in China and the gap between domestic and international research are discussed.

Key words: Diamond    Lithospheric mantle.    Mineral inclusion
出版日期: 2015-03-20
ZTFLH:  P578.1+6  
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金青年基金项目“华北克拉通金伯利岩中金刚石及其矿物包裹体研究”(编号:41302031); 中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目“山东蒙阴金伯利岩中金刚石及其矿物包裹体研究”(编号:2652011269)资助

作者简介: 作者简介:赵欣(1975-),女,北京人,讲师,主要从事地幔矿物、岩石研究.
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赵欣, 施光海, 张骥. 岩石圈地幔中的金刚石及其矿物包裹体的研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2015, 30(3): 310-322.

Zhao Xin, Shi Guanghai, Zhang Ji. Review on Lithospheric Diamonds and Their Mineral Inclusions. Advances in Earth Science, 2015, 30(3): 310-322.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2015.03.0310        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2015/V30/I3/310

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