Please wait a minute...
img img
高级检索
地球科学进展  2013, Vol. 28 Issue (7): 751-764    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2013.07.0751
综述与评述     
硝酸盐氮氧稳定同位素分馏过程记录的海洋氮循环研究进展
洪义国
热带海洋环境国家重点实验室,中国科学院南海海洋研究所,广东 广州 510301
Marine Nitrogen Cycle Recorded by Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotope Fractionation of Nitrate
Hong Yiguo
State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301,China
 全文: PDF(840 KB)  
摘要:

海洋生态系统中的氮素生物地球化学循环主要是由微生物的代谢过程来驱动的,包括氮固定、氮同化、硝化以及反硝化和厌氧氨氧化过程,这些过程都
伴随着不同程度的氮氧同位素的分馏,直接影响着海洋硝酸盐中的氮氧稳定同位素组成。因此,通过检测海洋硝酸盐中的氮氧稳定同位素信号,就可以捕捉到海洋中发生的具体氮素循环过程。细菌反硝化法是这一研究最有力的手段,通过细菌的作用把硝酸盐中记录的氮氧稳定同位素信号转化到N2O中,再通过痕量N2O的同位素质谱测定和分析,准确地反映海洋中发生的氮素转化过程。硝酸盐氮氧稳定同位素分馏过程为深入理解海洋氮循环提供了一个重要的工具,有力推动了海洋氮素生物地球化学的研究,在近10年来取得了重要进展。

关键词: 海洋氮素生物地球化学循环硝酸盐氮氧稳定同位素分馏    
Abstract:

Nitrogen cycle in ocean is mainly driven by microbial processes, which plays important roles in the marine production and influences the global climate change. Different  microbial nitrogen transformation processes, including nitrogen assimilation, nitrogen fixing, nitrification and denitrification, are all associated with different isotope effect of both the nitrogen and oxygen atoms, impacting the composition of the nitrogen and oxygen isotope of nitrate in the sea or ocean. Therefore, N-isotopic tracers can provide qualitative and quantitative information on extant processes on local scales. Bacterial denitrification method provides  an important and powerful approach for this kind of study, which can transform the signal of N/O isotope in nitrate into N2O. Through investigating the composition of coupled N/O isotope in N2O, each of microbial process for nitrogen transformation can be determined exactly.

Key words: Marine nitrogen biogeochemical cycle    Nitrate    Nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation
收稿日期: 2013-01-23 出版日期: 2013-07-10
:  P736.4  
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目“氨氧化古菌(AOA)在南海北部的群落结构、活性及生态效应”(编号:41076095)和“珠江口硝化—反硝化—厌氧氨氧化耦合过程驱动的脱氮机制及关键环境影响因素研究”(编号:31270163)资助.

通讯作者: 洪义国(1974-),男,内蒙古赤峰人,副研究员,主要从事海洋氮素循环研究.     E-mail: yghong@scsio.ac.cn
作者简介: 洪义国(1974-),男,内蒙古赤峰人,副研究员,主要从事海洋氮素循环研究.E-mail:yghong@scsio.ac.cn
服务  
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章  
洪义国

引用本文:

洪义国. 硝酸盐氮氧稳定同位素分馏过程记录的海洋氮循环研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2013, 28(7): 751-764.

Hong Yiguo. Marine Nitrogen Cycle Recorded by Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotope Fractionation of Nitrate. Advances in Earth Science, 2013, 28(7): 751-764.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2013.07.0751        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2013/V28/I7/751

[1] Falkowski P G. Evolution of the nitrogen cycle and its influence on the biological sequestration of CO2 in the ocean[J].Nature, 1997, 387(6 630): 272-275.

[2] Galloway J N, Dentener F J, Capone D G,et al. Nitrogen cycles: Past, present, future[J]. Biogeochemistry, 2004, 70(2): 153-226.

[3] Canfield D E, Glazer A N, Falkowshi P G. The evolution and future of Earth’s nitrogen cycle[J]. Science, 2010, 330(6 001): 192-196.

[4] Zehr J P, Kudela R M. Nitrogen cycle of the open ocean: From genes to ecosystems[J].Annual Review of Marine Science, 2011,(3):197-225.

[5] Ward B B, Capone D G, Zehr J P. What’s new in the nitrogen cycle[J].Oceanography,2007,20(2):101-109.

[6] Arrigo K R.  Marine microorganisms and global nutrient cycles[J].Nature, 2005, 437(7 057): 349-355.

[7] Dugdale R C, Menzel D W, Ryther J H. Nitroge fixation in the Sargass-Sea[J].Deep-Sea Research, 1961, 7:298-300.

[8] Zehr J P. Nitrogen fixation by marine cyanobacteria[J].Trends in  Microbiology,2011, 19(4):162-173.

[9] Brandes J A, Devol A H. A global marine fixed nitrogen isotopic budget: Implications for Holocene nitrogen cycling[J].Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2002, 16(4):1 120-1 133.

[10] Simon J. Enzymology and bioenergetics of respiratory nitrite ammonification[J].FEMS Microbiology Review,2002,26(3):285-309.

[11] Kartal B, Kuypers M M M, Lavik G,et al. Anammox bacteria disguised as denitrifiers: Nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas via nitrite and ammonium[J].Environmental Microbiology, 2007, 9(3):635-642.

[12] Lam P, Lavik G, Jensen M M,et al.Revising the nitrogen cycle in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone[J].Proceeding of the National Academy of  Sciences,2009, 106(12):4 752-4 757.

[13] Ward B B, Kilpatrick K A, Renger E H,et al. Biological nitrogen cycling in the nitracline[J].Limnology and Oceanography, 1989, 34(3):493-513.

[14] Allen A E, Howard-Jones M H, Booth M G,et al. Importance of heterotrophic bacterial assimilation of ammonium and nitrate in the Barents Sea during summer[J].Journal of Marine Systems, 2002, 38(1): 93-108.

[15] Zumft W G. Cell biology and molecular basis of denitrification[J].Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 1997, 61: 533-616.

[16] Seitzinger S P. Denitrification in freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems: Ecological and geochemical significance[J].Limnology and Oceanography, 1988, 33: 702-724.

[17] Devol A H. Direct measurement of nitrogen gas fluxes from continental-shelf sediments[J].Nature, 1991, 349: 319-321.

[18] Middelburg J J, Soetaert K, Herman P M J,et al. Denitrification in marine sediments: A model study[J].Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 1996, 10: 661-673.

[19] Brandes J A, Devol A H. Isotopic fractionation of oxygen and nitrogen in coastal marine sediments[J].Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1997, 61: 1 793-1 801.

[20] Hong Yiguo, Li Meng, Gu Jidong. Bacterial anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox) in the marine nitrogen cycke—A review[J].Acta Microbiological Sinica, 2009, 49: 281-286.[洪义国,李猛,顾继东.海洋氮循环中细菌的厌氧氨氧化[J].微生物学报,2009,49:281-286.]

[21] Bohlke J K, Mroczkowski S J, Coplen T B C. Oxygen isotopes in nitrate: New reference materials for O-18: O-17:O-16 measurements and observations on nitrate-water equilibration[J].Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 2003, 17:1 835-1 846.

[22] Sigman D M, Karsh K L, Casciotti K L. Nitrogen isotopes in the ocean[M]Steele J H, Turekian K K, Thorpe S A, eds. Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (update from 2001). London: Academic Press, 2009.

[23] Sigman D M, Altabet M A, McCorkle D C, et al. The d15N of nitrate in the Southern Ocean: Nitrogen cycling and circulation in the ocean interior[J].Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 2000, 105(C8): 19 599-19 614.

[24] Gruber N. The dynamics of the marine nitrogen cycle and its influence on atmospheric CO2 variations[M]Oguz T, Follws M, eds. Carbon-Climate Interactions. New York: Wiley, 2004.

[25] Carpenter E J, Harvey H R, Brian F,et al. Biogeochemical tracers of the marine cyanobacteriumTrichodesmium[J].Deep-Sea Research Part I, 1997, 44: 27-38.

[26] Karl D, Michaels A, Bergman B,et al. Dinitrogen fixation in the world’s oceans[J].Biogeochemistry, 2002, 57: 47-98.

[27] Lehmann M F, SigmannD M D, Berelson C,et al. Coupling the15N/14N and 18O/16O of nitrate as a constraint on benthnic nitrogen cycling[J].Marine Chemistry, 2004, 88: 1-20.

[28] Lehmann M F, Sigman D M, McCorkle D C J,et al. The distribution of nitrate15N/14N in marine sediments and the impact of benthic nitrogen loss on the isotopic composition of oceanic nitrate[J].Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2007, 71: 5 384-5 404.

[29] Sebilo M, Billen G, Grably M,et al. Isotopic composition of nitrate-nitrogen as a marker of riparian and benthic denitrification at the scale of the whole Seine River system[J].Biogeochemistry, 2003, 63:35-51.

[30] Sigman D M, Casciotti K L, Andreani M,et al. A bacterial method for the nitrogen isotopic analysis of nitrate in seawater and freshwater[J].Analytical Chemistry, 2001, 73: 4 145-4 153.

[31] Altabet M A, Deuser W G. Seasonal variations in natural abundance of 15N in particles sinking to the deep Sargasso Sea[J].Nature, 1985, 315: 218-219.

[32] Altabet M A. Variations in nitrogen isotopic composition between sinking and suspended particles: Implications for nitrogen cycling and particle transformation in the deep ocean[J]. Deep-Sea Reasearch, 1988, 35: 535-554.

[33] Needoba J A, Sigman D M, Harrison P J. The mechanism of isotope fractionation by algal nitrate assimilation as illuminated by the 15N/14N of intracellular nitrate[J].Journal of Phycology, 2004, 40:517-522.

[34] Needoba J A, Harrison P J. Influence of low light and a light: Dark cycle on NO3 - uptake, intracellular NO3, and nitrogen isotope fractionation by marine phytoplankton[J].Journal of Phycology, 2004, 40: 505-516.

[35] Ledgard S F, Woo K C, Bergersen F J. Isotopic fractionation during reduction of nitrate to nitrite by extracts of spinach leaves[J]. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 1985, 12: 631-640.

[36] Granger J, Sigman D M, Rohde J M,et al. N and O isotope effects during nitrate assimilation by unicellular prokaryotic and eukaryotic plankton cultures[J].Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2010, 74: 2 030-2 040.

[37] Granger J, Sigman D M, Needoba J A,et al. Coupled nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation of nitrate during assimilation by cultures of marine phytoplankton[J].Limnology and Oceanography, 2004, 49: 1 763-1 773.

[38] Thunell R C, Sigman D M, Muller-Karger F,et al. The nitrogen isotope dynamics of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela[J].Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2004, 18(3),doi:10.1029/2003GB002185.

[39] Liu K K, Kaplan I R. The eastern tropical Pacific as a source of 15N-enriched nitrate in seawater off southern California[J].Limnology and Oceanography, 1989, 34: 820-830.

[40] Liu K K, Su M J, Hsueh C R,et al. The nitrogen isotopic composition of nitrate in the Kuroshio water northeast of Taiwan: Evidence for nitrogen fixation as a source of isotopically light nitrate[J].Marine Chemistry, 1996, 54: 273-292.

[41] Wu J P, Calvert S E, Song C S. Nitrogen isotope variations in the subarctic northeast Pacific: Relationships to nitrate utilization and trophic structure[J].Deep-Sea Research Part I, 1997, 44: 287-314.

[42] Sigman D M, Altabet M A, Michener R,et al. Natural abundance-level measurement of the nitrogen isotopic composition of oceanic nitrate: An adaptation of the ammonia diffusion method[J].Marine Chemistry, 1997, 57: 227-242.

[43] Martin J H, Coale K H, Joohnson K S,et al. Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific-Ocean[J].Nature, 1994, 371: 123-129.

[44] Horrigan S G, Montoya J P, Nevins J,et al. Nitrogenous nutrient transformations in the spring and fall in the Chesapeake Bay[J]. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 1990, 30: 369-391.

[45] Voss M, Dippner  J W, Montoyab J P,et al. Nitrogen isotope patterns in the oxygen-deficient waters of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean[J].Deep-Sea Research Part I, 2001, 48: 1 905-1 921.

[46] Brandes J A, Devol A H, Yoshinari T,et al. Isotopic composition of nitrate in the central Arabian Sea and eastern tropical North Pacific: A tracer for mixing and nitrogen cycles[J].Limnology and Oceanography, 1998, 43: 1 680-1 689.

[47] Cline J D, Kaplan I R. Isotopic fractionation of dissolved nitrate during denitrification in the eastern tropical north Pacific Ocean[J].Marine Chemistry, 1975, 3: 271-299.

[48] Naqvi S W A, Yoshinari T, Brandes J A,et al. Nitrogen isotopicf studies in the suboxic Arabbian Sea[J].Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, 1998, 107: 367-378.

[49] Altabet M A, Pilskaln C, Thunellc R,et al. The nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry of sinking particles from the margin of the Eastern North Pacific[J].Deep-Sea Research Part I, 1999, 46: 655-679.

[50] Mariotti A, Germon J C, Hubert P,et al. Experimental determination of nitrogen kinetic isotope fractionation: Some principles; Illustration for the denitrification and nitrification processes[J].Plant and Soil, 1981, 62: 413-430.

[51] Karl D, Letelier R, Tupas L,et al. The role of nitrogen fixation in biogeochemical cycling in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean[J].Nature, 1997, 388: 533-538.

[52] Cifuentes L A, Fogel M L, Pennock J R, et al. Biogeochemical factors that influence the stable nitrogen isotope ratio of dissolved ammonium in the Delaware Estuary[J].Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta,1989, 53: 2 713-2 721.

[53] Hoch M P, Fogel M L, Kirchman D L,et al. Isotope fractionation during ammonium uptake by marine microbial assemblages[J].Geomicrobiology Journal, 1994, 12: 113-127.

[54] Sigman D M, Altabet M A, Francois R,et al. The isotopic composition of diatom-bound nitrogen in Southern Ocean sediments[J].Paleoceanography, 1999, 14: 118-134.

[55] Altabet M A. Nitrogen isotopic evidence for micronutrient control of fractional NO-3 utilization in the equatorial Pacific[J].Limnology and Oceanography, 2001, 46: 368-380.

[56] Casciotti K L, Sigman D M, Ward B B. Linking diversity and stable isotope fractionation inammonia-oxidizing bacteria[J].Geomicrobiology Journal, 2003, 20: 335-353.

[57] Barford C C, Montoya J P, Altabet M A,et al. Steady-state nitrogen isotope effects of N2 and N2O production in Paracoccus denitrificans[J].Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1999, 65: 989-994.

[58] Wellman R P, Cook F D, Krouse H R. Nitrogen-15: Microbiological alteration of abundance[J].Science, 1968, 161:269-270.

[59] Delwiche C C, Steyn P L. Nitrogen isotope fractionation in soils and microbial reactions[J].Environmental Science and Technology, 1970, 4: 929-935.

[60] Waser N A, Yu Z M, Yin K,et al. Nitrogen isotopic fractionation during a simulated diatom spring bloom: Importance of N-starvation in controlling fractionation[J].Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 1999, 179: 291-296.

[61] Pennock J R, Velinsky D J, Ludlam J M, et al. Isotopic fractionation of ammonium and nitrate during uptake by Skeletonema costatum: Implications for delta N-15 dynamics under bloom conditions[J].Limnology and Oceanography, 1996, 41: 451-459.

[62] Waser N A, Yin K D, Yu Z,et al. Nitrogen isotope fractionation during nitrate, ammonium and urea uptake by marine diatoms and coccolithophores under various conditions of N availability[J].Marine Ecology-Progress Series,1998,169: 29-41.

[63] Granger J, Sigman D M, Lehmann M F, et al. Nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation of during dissimilatory nitrate reduction by denitrifying bacteria[J].Limnology and Oceanography, 2008, 53: 2 533-2 545.

[64] Montoya J P, Mccarthy J J. Isotopic fractionation during nitrate uptake by phytoplankton grown in continuous-culture[J].Journal of Plankton Research, 1995, 17: 439-464.

[65] Wada E, Hattori A. Nitrogen in the Sea: Forms, Abundances, and Rate Processes[M]. Florida: CRC Press, 1990.

[66] Dugdale R C, Goering J J. Uptake of new and regenerated forms of nitrogen in primary productivity[J].Limnology and Oceanography, 1967, 12:196-206.

[67] Revesz K, Bohlke J K, Yoshman T. Determination of 18O and 15N in nitrate[J].Analytical Chemistry, 1997, 69: 4 375-4 380.

[68] Silva S R, Kendall C, Wilkison D H,et al. A new method for collection nitrate from fresh water and the analysis of nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios[J].Journal of Hydrology, 2000, 228: 22-36. 

[69] Casciotti K L, Sigman D M, Galanter M, et al. Measurement of the oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate in seawater and freshwater using the denitrifier method[J].Analytical Chemistry, 2002, 74: 4 905-4 912.

[70] Granger J, Sigman D M, Prokopenko M,et al. A method for nitrite removal in nitrate N and O isotope analysis[J]. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 2006, 4: 205-212.

[71] Andersson K K,Philson S B, Hooper A B. Oxygen-18 isotope shift in nitrogen-15 NMR analysis of biological nitrogen oxidations water and nitrite exchange in the ammonia oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europeae[J].Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 1982, 79: 5 871-5 875.

[72] Casciotti K L, Trull T W, Glover D M,et al. Constraints on nitrogen cycling at the subtropica North Pacific Station ALOHA from isotopic measurements of nitrate and particulate nitrogen[J].Deep-Sea Research Part II, 2008, 55: 1 161-1 672.

[73] Bigg G R, Rohling E J. An oxygen isotope data set for marine waters[J].Journal of Geophysics Research, 2000, 105:8 527- 8 535.

[74] Sigman D M, Granger J, DiFiore P,et al. Coupled nitrogen and oxygen isotope measurements of nitrate along the eastern North Pacific margin[J].Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2005, 19(4),doi:1029/2005GB002458.

[75] Sigman D M, DiFiore P J, Hain M P,et al. The dual isotopes of deep nitrate as a constraint on the cycle and budget of oceanic fixed nitrogen[J].Deep-Sea Research Part I, 2009, 56: 1 409-1 439.

[76] Gruber N, Sarmiento J L. Global patterns of marine nitrogen fixation and denitrification[J].Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 1997, 11: 235-266.

[77] Hansell D A, Bates N R, Olson D B. Excess nitrate and nitrogen fixation in the North Atlantic Ocean[J]. Marine Chemistry,2004, 84:243-265.

[78] Knapp A N, Hastings M G, Sigman D M, et al. The flux and isotopic composition of reduced and total nitrogen in Bermuda rain[J].Marine Chemistry, 2008, 120: 83-89.

[79] Altabet M A, Deuser W G, Honjo S, et al. Seasonal and depth-related changes in the source of sinking particles in the North Atlantic[J]. Nature, 1991, 354: 136-139.

[80] Knapp A N, Sigman D M, Lipschultz F. N isotopic composition of dissolved organic nitrogen and nitrate at the Bermuda Atlantic time-series study site[J].Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2005, 19(1),doi:10.1029/2004GB00230.

[81] Hughen K A, Overpeck J T, Peterson L C, et al. Rapid climate changes in the tropical Atlantic region during the last deglaciation[J]. Nature, 1996, 380: 51-54.

[82] Peterson L, Overpeck J, Kipp N,et al. A high-resolution late Quaternary upwelling record from the anoxic Cariaco Basin, Venezuela[J].Paleoceanography, 1991, 6: 99-119.

[83] Meckler A N, Haug G H, Sigman D M,et al. Detailed sedimentary N isotope records from Cariaco Basin for Terminations I and V: Local and global implications[J].Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2007, 21(4),doi:10.1029/2006GB002893.

[84] Checkley Jr D M, Miller C A. Nitrogen isotope fractionation by oceanic zooplankton[J].Deep-Sea Research Part 1, 1989,36(10): 1 449-1 456.

[85] Altabet M A, Small L F. Nitrogen isotopic ratios in fecal pellets produced by marine zooplankton[J].Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1990,54(1):155-163.

[86] DiFiore P J, Sigman D M, Dunbar R B,et al. Upper ocean nitrogen fluxes in the Polar Antarctic Zone: Constraints from nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate[J].Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 2009, 10(11):Q11016. 

[87] Lehmann M F, Sigman D M, McCorkle D C,et al. Origin of the deep Bering Sea nitrate deficit—Constraints from the nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of water column nitrate and benthic nitrate fluxes[J].Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2009, 19(4),doi:10.1029/2005GB002508.

[1] 徐昭萌, 刘素美. 底栖有孔虫体内储存硝酸盐和反硝化研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2017, 32(9): 949-958.
[2] 杨志,陈敏. 海水硝酸盐氮、氧同位素组成研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2012, 27(3): 268-275.
[3] 邓林,曹玉清,王文科. 地下水NO-3氮与氧同位素研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2007, 22(7): 716-724.
[4] 陈法锦,李学辉,贾国东. 氮氧同位素在河流硝酸盐研究中的应用[J]. 地球科学进展, 2007, 22(12): 1251-1257.
[5] 张翠云;张胜;李政红;刘少玉. 利用氮同位素技术识别石家庄市地下水硝酸盐污染源[J]. 地球科学进展, 2004, 19(2): 183-191.
[6] 王根绪,程国栋,钱鞠,常娟. 中国干旱内陆流域水体 N、P负荷特征与动态变化——以黑河流域为例[J]. 地球科学进展, 2003, 18(3): 338-344.