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地球科学进展  2008, Vol. 23 Issue (10): 1102-1110    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2008.10.1102
生态学研究     
基于水土保持的流域生态环境需水研究
马乐宽1,李天宏1,刘国彬2
1. 北京大学环境工程系,水沙科学教育部重点实验室,北京 100871;2.中国科学院/水利部 西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所,陕西 杨凌 712100
Study on Eco-environmental Water Requirement of Drainage Basin Aiming for Water and Soil Conservation
Ma Lekuan1,Li Tianhong1,Liu Guobin2
1.Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University and The Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871, China; 2. Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Water Resources and Northwest Science & Technology University of Agriculture & Forestry, Yangling 712100, China
 全文: PDF(1066 KB)  
摘要:

针对现有生态环境需水量的计算主要基于现状而导致其实用性不足的特点,提出了根据流域或区域对生态环境功能的需求来确定其生态建设规模并计算其生态环境需水量的思想。以位于黄土高原的安塞纸坊沟流域为例,针对该流域以水土流失为首要生态环境问题的特点,在已有的土壤侵蚀与土地利用结构关系研究的基础上,基于水土保持目标确定土地利用结构,进而计算出该流域的生态环境需水量,并对不同土地利用情景以及不同水土保持目标进行了对比分析。研究表明,综合考虑水土保持效益与生态环境用水代价,纸坊沟流域以允许土壤流失量1 000 t/(km2·a)为目标为宜,此时该流域生态环境需水量约为1.77×106 m3,占该流域年降水总量的39.0%。通过与基于生态系统现状的计算结果相比较,说明提出的思想更为合理。

关键词: 土壤侵蚀水土保持流域生态环境需水纸坊沟    
Abstract:

Usually the calculation of eco-environmental water requirement (EWR) is based on the status quo of ecosystems in most researches, thus leading to little practicability to water allocation practice. Therefore, this paper advanced an idea based on the calculation of EWR on a proper ecosystem status determined by the demand of a region or a watershed for eco-environmental functions and services. Zhifanggou watershed, which is located in Ansai county on the Loess Plateau and suffering from serious water and soil loss, was chosen as the study area. Based on the existent study of the relationship between soil erosion and land use structure, the land use structure of Zhifanggou watershed was determined according to the objective of water and soil conservation, and then the EWR of Zhifanggou watershed was calculated according to the determined land use structure. EWRs corresponding to different scenarios of land use structure and different objectives of water and soil conservation were compared and discussed. The result shows that the proper objective of water and soil conservation for Zhifanggou Watershed is 1000 t/(km2·a) of soil loss tolerance, and the corresponding EWR is 1.77×106m3, which occupies 39.0% of the total annual precipitation. By the comparison between the calculation result based on the status quo of ecosystems and that of ours, our idea was proved more practical.

Key words: Soil erosion    Water and soil conservation    Watershed    Eco-environmental water requirement    Zhifanggou Watershed.
收稿日期: 2008-04-20 出版日期: 2008-10-10
:  P343  
基金资助:

国家重点基础研究发展计划项目“流域侵蚀产沙机制与水沙运移规律”(编号:2007CB407202);中国科学院西部行动计划项目“黄土高原水土保持与可持续生态建设试验示范研究”(编号:KZCX2-XB2-05)资助.

通讯作者: 李天宏(1970-),男,陕西渭南人,副教授,主要从事水沙环境科学研究.     E-mail: litianhong@iee.pku.edu.cn
作者简介: 马乐宽(1979-),男,重庆江津人,博士研究生,主要从事水沙环境科学研究.E-mail:malekuan@iee.pku.edu.cn
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引用本文:

马乐宽,李天宏,刘国彬. 基于水土保持的流域生态环境需水研究[J]. 地球科学进展, 2008, 23(10): 1102-1110.

Ma Lekuan,Li Tianhong,Liu Guobin. Study on Eco-environmental Water Requirement of Drainage Basin Aiming for Water and Soil Conservation. Advances in Earth Science, 2008, 23(10): 1102-1110.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2008.10.1102        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2008/V23/I10/1102

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