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地球科学进展  2019, Vol. 34 Issue (9): 891-900    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.09.0891
综述与评述     
戈壁沙尘释放过程与机理研究进展
张正偲1(),潘凯佳1,2,梁爱民1,2,董治宝3,李兴财4
1. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院,甘肃 兰州 730000
2. 中国科学院大学,北京100049
3. 陕西 师范大学 地理科学与旅游学院,陕西 西安 710119
4. 宁夏大学,宁夏 银川 750021
Progress on Process and Mechanism of Sand and Dust Emission on Gobi
Zhengcai Zhang1(),Kaijia Pan1,2,Aimin Liang1,2,Zhibao Dong3,Xingcai Li4
1. Key Laboratory of Desert and Desertification,Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou 730000,China
2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China
3. School of Geography and Tourism,Shaanxi Normal University,Xi’ an 710119,China
4. School of Physics & Electronic-Electrical Engineering,Ningxia Key Laboratory of Intelligent Sensing for the Desert Information,Ningxia University,Yinchuan 750021,China
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摘要:

戈壁是中国西北干旱区的重要地表类型之一,被认为是我国乃至于中亚的沙尘暴源区。受戈壁特殊下垫面影响,沙尘释放过程与机理明显不同于沙漠等其他地表类型。系统分析了影响沙尘释放过程的风动力系统、地貌格局和下垫面特征;从摩阻起动风速和地表粗糙度的角度探讨了戈壁沙尘释放的机理。最后在总结前人工作基础上,结合区域和全球沙尘释放模型的需要,提出加强戈壁地表性质参数化过程、戈壁区沙源甄别和沙尘释放机理是戈壁沙尘释放研究的重中之重。

关键词: 戈壁沙尘过程与机理    
Abstract:

Gobi is one of the most important landscapes in northwest China, and it is also one of the dust sources in north China and even in central Asia. Based on the different land surface characteristics on the gobi surface, sand and dust emission process and mechanism are obviously different with other landscapes, such as sandy desert. Dust emission process and mechanism on the gobi surface were analyzed in this paper. Wind power system, geomorphology pattern and underlying characteristics were considered for their effect on the sand and dust emission process. Then, the mechanism of land surface characteristics on threshold wind velocity was analyzed. Finally, based on the previous studies on dust emission and mechanism, and in combination with the regional and global requirement, we suggested that the land surface characteristics parameterization, identification of the dust sources and sediment emission mechanism should be the main issues in the future gobi sand and dust research.

Key words: Gobi    Sand and dust    Process and mechanism.
收稿日期: 2019-07-27 出版日期: 2019-11-15
ZTFLH:  P931.3  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目“阿拉善高原西居延海地区冲积—洪积砂砾戈壁粉尘释放机理与模型研究”(41971014);宁夏回族自治区重点研发计划项目“荒漠化地区光伏电站电能高效预测的若干关键技术研究”(2018BFH03004)
通讯作者: 张正偲     E-mail: zhangzhsi@sina.com
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引用本文:

张正偲, 潘凯佳, 梁爱民, 董治宝, 李兴财. 戈壁沙尘释放过程与机理研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2019, 34(9): 891-900.

Zhengcai Zhang, Kaijia Pan, Aimin Liang, Zhibao Dong, Xingcai Li. Progress on Process and Mechanism of Sand and Dust Emission on Gobi. Advances in Earth Science, 2019, 34(9): 891-900.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.09.0891        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2019/V34/I9/891

图2  中国戈壁区风动力系统
图3  地貌格局对现代沙尘释放过程影响模型 (a)中国主要沙尘源区物源与山脉动力过程分析;(b)山脉物源动力过程示意图
图1  戈壁和沙尘暴发生区空间分布图[24]
戈壁 沙漠 沙地
降雨 <50 mm <200 mm >200 mm
植被 盖度小于5%,零星分布,主要分布在黏土含量较多的低洼地带 与降雨有关,多分布在丘间地 除丘顶外的其余地方
砾石 与戈壁类型有关,以大于2 mm为主
沙源 较少 最多 较多
粉尘含量 以5%~20%为主 <1%,以丘间地含量较多 <5%,以丘间地含量较多
微地形 复杂多样,多与干涸湖盆、干河床和冲沟相间分布 单一 单一
结皮 主要以物理结皮为主 较多
表1  戈壁、沙漠和沙地地表特征对比
图4  典型戈壁地表属性示意图 (a)无结皮戈壁;(b)含有冲沟和雅丹的戈壁;(c)含冲沟戈壁;(d)含有结皮的戈壁;(e)戈壁和冲积物并存;(f)含干湖沉积物戈壁
图5  沙尘释放机理示意图 (a)戈壁地表沙尘起动过程[46];(b)沙尘释放量与摩阻风速的关系;(c)摩阻风速与地表参数之间的关系[48]
图6  沙尘释放野外观测与模型建立过程[46,47,48,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63]
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