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地球科学进展  2018, Vol. 33 Issue (10): 1024-1033    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.10.1024.
综述与评述     
海洋沉积物有机质赋存的多样性与物源指标的多疑性综述
韦海伦1(), 蔡进功1,*(), 王国力2, 王学军3
1.同济大学海洋地质国家重点实验室,上海 200092
2.中国石油化工股份有限公司科技部,北京 100086
3.中国石化胜利油田分公司勘探开发研究院,山东 东营 257015
The Diversity of Organic Matter in Marine Sediments and the Suspiciousness of Source Parameters: A Review
Hailun Wei1(), Jingong Cai1,*(), Guoli Wang2, Xuejun Wang3
1.State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
2. Science and Technology Institute, China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation, Beijing 100086, China;
3. Exploration and Development Institute of Shengli Oilfield Company, Sinopec, Shandong Dongying 257015,China
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摘要:

海洋沉积物中有机质类型多样,准确判断有机质的来源具有重要的意义。前人通常的研究方法包括元素比(C/N)、稳定同位素(δ13C)和生物标志物(BIT)等,都以全样作为对象,通过各自的海陆端元值计算比例。然而,有机质通过抗降解性或与无机矿物结合等不同方式保存,其差异导致各自的参数值发生变化。经过重力等作用下分异沉积后,不同保存方式的有机质便会富集或分散,使得有些指标在某区域失真甚至失去意义。由此可知,全样测得的有机质各参数值受其来源和保存方式共同影响,不考虑保存方式而直接使用这些指标来研究有机质来源便具有不可靠性。基于此,提出粒级分离的方法,将不同性质和保存方式的沉积物分离,并根据具体粒级的有机质组成和特征,使用相应的指标及端元值,得到更准确的有机质来源比例。这对认识有机质的产生、聚集、赋存、运移、沉积和演化等整个碳循环过程具有深刻意义。

关键词: 海洋沉积物有机质来源粒级分离指标参数    
Abstract:

There are various types of Organic Matter (OM) in marine sediments, and it is of great significance to accurately estimate the source of them. The methods used in most researches include element ratio (C/N), stable isotopes (δ13C) and biomarkers (BIT), all of which are used for the whole sample as objects and calculated by end-member of terrestrial and marine source OM, respectively. However, OM is preserved in different ways, such as on its own recalcitrance or combining with inorganic minerals. Preservation differences make their respective parameter values change. After differential sedimentary by gravity or other factors,different preservation types of OM are enriched or dispersed, making some parameters distorted and even meaningless in some areas. Therefore, the parameters of OM measured by the whole sample are influenced by the source of OM and the way of deposition and preservation. Therefore, it is unreliable to use these parameters to study the source of OM without considering the way of preservation. Based on this, this paper put forward a method of particle separation to separate the sediment in different propertied and preservation types. According to the composition and characteristics of the OM at the specific grain level, the corresponding index and end-members value were used to calculate more accurate proportion of the OM. It is of profound significance to understand the production, aggregation, occurrence, migration and deposition of OM and its evolution in the entire carbon cycle.

Key words: Marine sediment    Source of organic matter    Particle classification    Parameter
收稿日期: 2018-06-07 出版日期: 2018-11-16
ZTFLH:  P736.21  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目“泥页岩中不同赋存态烃的分离及特征研究”(编号:41672115);同济大学海洋地质国家重点实验室自主课题探索项目“东海沉积物各类型有机质的来源与保存机制研究”(编号:MG20170201)资助.
通信作者: 蔡进功     E-mail: 2010weihailun@tongji.edu.cn;jgcai@tongji.edu.cn
作者简介:

作者简介:韦海伦(1991-),男,广西都安人,博士研究生,主要从事海洋沉积物有机质的分布和源汇研究.E-mail:2010weihailun@tongji.edu.cn

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引用本文:

韦海伦, 蔡进功, 王国力, 王学军. 海洋沉积物有机质赋存的多样性与物源指标的多疑性综述[J]. 地球科学进展, 2018, 33(10): 1024-1033.

Hailun Wei, Jingong Cai, Guoli Wang, Xuejun Wang. The Diversity of Organic Matter in Marine Sediments and the Suspiciousness of Source Parameters: A Review. Advances in Earth Science, 2018, 33(10): 1024-1033.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.10.1024.        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V33/I10/1024

名称 原理 优点 缺点
有机碳同位素δ13C 海陆植物的光合作用差异使其优先使用不同的CO2,导致C分馏差异,使得海陆有机质的碳同位素有差异[29] 同位素值较为稳定,在运移沉降过程中变化小[30] C3、C4和CAM(Crassulacean Acid Metabolism)植物的δ13C不同,因而在多种植物繁盛区域,它们的差异使得结果出现偏差[31]
C/N值 由于陆地和海洋植物的木质素、纤维素和蛋白质含量差异,使得海陆有机质的C/N值不同[32] ①准确判定物源趋势;②在环境稳定区域的柱状样中,若其值稳定,则可判定微生物降解作用影响较小[30] ①C/N值的变化:有机质在早期成岩过程中,蛋白质优先降解会造成 C/N偏高[30];无机铵盐的吸附作用会造成 C/N 偏低,当沉积物的颗粒粒度较小时这种影响会增大[29]
②有机碳含量较低时(<0.3%),无机氮对于C/N的影响不可忽略[31]
BIT 海洋中的古菌和陆地土壤的细菌生物标志物不同,从而可据此判断物源[12] 海洋古菌和土壤微生物的生物标志物GDGTs(图1)具有相似的化学结构及降解速率,因而受降解影响较小[12] ①生物标志物GDGTs在不同粒级中保存有差异,多存于细粒级中[33],因而砂质区域使用受限
②不能指示通过大气运输进入海洋的陆源有机质[31]
表1  有机质来源参数的异同
图1  Branched GDGTs和crenarchaeol的结构及利用HPLC-MS单离子扫描的m/z值[49]
图2  bGDGTs分别与OC、黏土含量和沉积物中值粒径的变化关系(数据来源于参考文献[52])
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