Please wait a minute...
img img
高级检索
地球科学进展  2012, Vol. 27 Issue (6): 624-632    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2012.06.0624
综述与评述     
海洋飞沫及其对海—气相互作用影响的研究进展
赵栋梁
中国海洋大学物理海洋实验室,山东青岛266003
Progress in Sea Spay and Its Effects on Air-Sea Interaction
Zhao Dongliang
Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Ocean University of China, Qingdao266003, China
 全文: PDF(10003 KB)  
摘要:

按照海水滴生成机制和粒径大小,由海浪破碎生成的海洋飞沫分为膜滴、射滴和裂滴三大类,较小的海水滴在大气中滞留时间长,成为云的凝结核,对长期气候变化有重要影响,较大的海水滴参与海—气界面动量和热量交换过程,有利于热带气旋的形成和发展。海洋飞沫的生成与海上风速、海浪、海流和大气稳定度等因素有关,但由于缺乏观测数据,刻画海洋飞沫效应的关键物理量——海洋飞沫生成函数通常用海上风速进行参数化,忽略其他因素的影响,彼此间的差异非常大,给研究海洋飞沫对气候和海—气相互作用的影响造成困难,需要进一步开展海洋飞沫的观测,考虑风速之外的其他因素对海洋飞沫生成函数的作用,改进海洋飞沫热量和动量效应的参数化方案,进而阐明海洋飞沫对气候和海—气相互作用的影响。

关键词: 海洋飞沫生成函数海水滴风速波浪海—气相互作用    
Abstract:

According to the generation mechanism and size, sea spray resulted from wave breaking can be divided into film, jet and spume droplets. The smaller droplets can become condensation nuclei in low clouds and play a great role in climate change. The larger droplets affect the exchange processes of momentum and heat through air-sea interface, which can enhance the development of tropical cyclones. As the most important physical quantity, sea spray generation function, which depends on wind speed, wave, current and atmospheric stability, has been parameterized by wind speed solely due to the lack of observational data. Its results are so greatly uncertain that is difficult to evaluate the influence of sea spray on airsea interaction. It is pointed out that more observations, especially at high wind speed, are needed, and the other factors except for wind speed should be taken into account in the parameterization of sea spray generation function. The estimation method of heat and momentum effects of sea spray on airsea interaction also needs to be modified further.

Key words: Sea spray generation function    Seawater droplet    Wind speed    Wave    Air-sea interaction
收稿日期: 2011-10-27 出版日期: 2012-06-10
:  P714+.2  
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目“基于现场观测和海洋遥感的气体交换速率研究”(编号:41076007)资助.

通讯作者: 赵栋梁(1964-),男,河北辛集人,教授,主要从事海—气边界层过程与海洋遥感研究.      E-mail: dlzhao@ouc.edu.cn
作者简介: 赵栋梁(1964-),男,河北辛集人,教授,主要从事海—气边界层过程与海洋遥感研究. E-mail:dlzhao@ouc.edu.cn
服务  
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章  

引用本文:

赵栋梁. 海洋飞沫及其对海—气相互作用影响的研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2012, 27(6): 624-632.

Zhao Dongliang. Progress in Sea Spay and Its Effects on Air-Sea Interaction. Advances in Earth Science, 2012, 27(6): 624-632.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2012.06.0624        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2012/V27/I6/624

[1]Spiel D E. On the births of film drops from bubbles bursting on seawater surfaces[J]. Jounrnal of Geophysical Research,1998, 103(C1): 24 907-24 918.[2]Spiel D E. On the births of jet drops from bubbles bursting on water surfaces[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1995, 100 (C3): 4 995-5 006.
[3]Monahan E C, Fairall C W, Davidson K L, et al. Observed inter-realtionships amongst 10 m-elevation winds, oceanic whitecaps, and marine aerosols[J]. Quarterly Journal of Royal Meteorology Society, 1983, 109(460): 379-392.
[4]Toba Y. Drop production by bursting of air bubbles on the sea surface: III. Study by use of a wind flume[J]. Memoirs of the College of Science, University of Kyoto (Series A), 1961, 29: 313-344.
[5]Andreas E L. A review of sea spray generation function for the open ocean[M]Perrie W A ed. Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions, Vol. I. Southampton: WIT Press,2002.
[6]O′Dowd C D, Smith M H, Consterdine I E, et al. Marine aerosol, sea-salt, and the marine sulphur cycle: A short review[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 1997, 31(1): 73-80.
[7]Fairall C W, Banner M, Morison R, et al. Dependence of spray flux on breaking waves[C]Ocean Science Meeting of the American Geophysical Union. Honolulu, 2006.
[8]Andreas E L, Emanuel K A. Effects of sea spray on tropical cyclone intensity[J]. Journal of Atmosphere Science, 2001, 58(24): 3 741-3 751.
[9]De Leeuw G, Neele F P, Hill M, et al. Sea spray aerosol production by wave breaking in the surf zone[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2000, 105(D2): 29 397-29 409.
[10]O′Dowd C D, Lowe J A, Smith M H. Coupling of sea-salt and sulphate interactions and its impact on cloud droplet concentration predictions[J]. Geophysical Research Letter, 1999, 26(9):1 311-1 314.
[11]Toba Y. On the giant sea-salt particles in the atmosphere: I. General feathers of the distribution[J]. Tellus, 1965, 17(1): 131-145.
[12]Monahan E C. Sea spray as a function of low elevation wind speed[J].Journal of Geophysical Research, 1968, 73(4): 1 127-1 137.
[13]Koga M, Toba Y. Droplet distribution and dispersion processes on breaking wind waves[J].Tohoku Geophysical Journal,1981, 28: 1-25.
[14]Lai R J, Shemdin O H. Laboratory study of the generation of spray over water[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1974, 79(21): 3 055-3 063.
[15]Woodcock A H. Salt nuclei in marine air as a function of altitude and wind force[J]. Journal of Meteorology, 1953, 10(5): 362-371.
[16]Wu J. Spray in the atmospheric surface layer: Laboratory study[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1973, 78(3):511-519.
[17]Wu J, Murray J, Lai R J. Production and distribution of sea spray[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research,1984, 89: 8 163-8 169.
[18]Resch F J, Afeti G M. Film drop distribution from bubbles bursting in seawater[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1991, 96(C6): 10 681-10 688.
[19]Resch F J, Afeti G M. Submicron film drop production by bubbles in sea water[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1992, 97(C3): 3 679-3 683.
[20]Anguelova M, Barber Jr R P, Wu J. Spume drops produced by the wind tearing of wave crests[J]. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 1999, 29(6): 1 156-1 165.
[21]Nilsson E D, Rannik U, Swietlicki E, et al. Turbulent aerosol fluxes over the Arctic Ocean 2. Wind-driven sources from the sea[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2001, 106(D3): 32 139-32 154.
[22]De Leeuw G, Skjøth C A, Hertel O, et al. Deposition of nitrogen into the North Sea[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 2003, 37(1):145-165.
[23]Geever M, O′Dowd C D, van Ekeren S, et al. Submicron sea spray fluxes[J]. Geophysical Research Letter, 2005, 32: L15810, doi:10.1029/2005GL023081.
[24]Norris S, Brooks I M, de Leeuw G, et al. Eddy covariance measurements of sea spray particles over the Atlantic Ocean[J]. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion, 2008, 8(3): 555-563.
[25]Petelski T, Piskozub J. Vertical coarse aerosol fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer over the North Polar waters of the Atlantic[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2006, 111:C06039, doi:10.1029/2005JC003295.
[26]Petelski T, Piskozub J, Paplinska-Swerpel B. Sea spray emission from the surface of the open Baltic Sea[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2005, 110: C10023, doi: 10.1029/ 2004JC002800.
[27]Andreas E L. Sea spray and the turbulent air-sea heat fluxes[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1992, 97(C7): 11 429-11 441.
[28]Smith M H, Park P M, Consterdine I E. Marine aerosol concentrations and estimated fluxes over the sea[J]. Journal of Royal Meteorology Society, 1993, 119(512): 809-824.
[29]Fairall C W, Kerpert J D, Holland G J. The effects of sea spray on surface energy transports over the ocean[J]. Global Atmosphere and Ocean System, 1994, 2: 121-142.
[30]Smith M H, Harrison N M. The sea spray generation function[J]. Journal of Aerosol Science, 1998, 29: 189-190.
[31]Monahan E C, Spiel D E, Davidson K L. A model of marine aerosol generation via whitecaps and wave disruption[M]Monahan E C, Niocaill  Mac G,eds.Oceanic Whitecaps. New York: Reidel Publishing Company, 1986:167-174.
[32]Märtensson E M, Nilsson E D, De Leeuw G, et al. Laboratory simulations and parameterization of the primary marine aerosol production[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2003, 108(D9): 4 297, doi:10.1029/2002JD002263.
[33]O′Dowd C D,  de Leeuw G. Marine aerosol production: A review of the current knowledge[J]. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society,2007, 365(1 856): 1 753-1 744.
[34]Monahan E C, O′Muircheartaigh I. Optimal power-law description of ocean whitecap coverage dependence on wind speed[J]. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 1980, 10(12): 2 094-2 099.
[35]Zhao D, Toba Y. Dependence of whitecap coverage on wind and wind wave properties[J]. Journal of Oceanography, 2001, 57(5): 603-616.
[36]Hoppel W A, Frick G M, Fitzgerald J W. Surface source function for sea-salt aerosol and aerosol dry deposition to the ocean surface[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2002, 107(D19): 4 382, doi:10.1029/2001JD002014.
[37]Fairall C W, Larsen S E. Dry deposition, surface production and dynamics of aerosols in the marine boundary layer[J]. Atmospheric Environment, 1984, 18(1): 69-77.
[38]Toba Y. On the giant sea-salt particles in the atmosphere: Part 1. General features of the distribution[J]. Tellus, 1970, 17: 131-145.
[39]Fairall C W, Banner M L, Peirson W L, et al. Investigation of the physical scaling of sea spray spume droplet production[J].Journal of Geophysical Research,2009, 114: C10001, doi:10.1029/2008JC004918.
[40]Andreas E L. A new sea spray generation function for wind speeds up to 32 m/s[J].Journal of Physical Oceanography, 1998, 28(11): 2 175-2 184.
[41]Piazzola J, Forget P, Despiau S. A sea spray generation function for fetch-limited conditions[J]. Annales Geophysicae, 2002, 20:121-131.
[42]Toba Y, Koga M. A parameter describing overall conditions of wave breaking, whitecapping, sea-spray production and wind stress[M]Monahan E C, Niocaill  Mac G,eds. Ocearic Whitecaps. Dordrech:Reidel D Publishing Compamy,1986:37-47.
[43]Zhao D, Toba Y, Sugioka K, et al. New sea spray generation function for spume droplets[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research,2006, 111:C02007, doi:10.1029/2005JC002960.
[44]Mueller J A, Veron F. A sea state-dependent spume generation function[J]. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 2009, 39(9): 2 363-2 372.
[45]IPCC. Climate Change: The Scientific Basis[M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001:881.
[46]Korolev V S, Petrichenko S A, Pudov V D. Heat and moisture exchange between the ocean and atmosphere in tropical storms Tess and Skip[J]. Soviet Meteorology Hydrology, 1990, 3: 92-94.
[47]Van Eijk A M J, Tranchant B S, Mestayer P G. Sea cluse: Numerical simulation of evaporating sea spray droplets[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2001, 106: 2 573-2 588.
[48]Emanuel K A. An air-sea interaction theory for tropical cyclones. Part I: Steady-state maintenance[J]. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 1986, 43:585-604.
[49]Andreas E L, DeCosmo J. Sea spray production and influence on air-sea heat and moisture fluxes over the open ocean[M]Greernaert G L ed. Air-Sea Exchange: Physics, Chemistry and Dynamics. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999:327-362.
[50]Wang Y, Kepert J D, Holland G J. The effect of sea spray evaporation on tropical cyclone boundary layer structure and intensity[J]. Monthly Weather Review, 2001, 129(10): 2 481-2 500.
[51]Zhang Huai. Efficiency of spray in sea-air momentum transfer[J]. Chinese Journal of Oceanography and Limnology, 1981, 12(2): 172-177.[张淮. 海气动量输送的飞沫效应[J].海洋与湖沼, 1981, 12(2): 172-177.]
[52]Liu Lei, Zheng Jing, Lu Zhiwu, et al. Sea spray parameterization used in typhoon simulations[J].Journal of Tropical Oceanography, 2010, 29(3):17-27.[刘磊,郑静,陆志武,等. 海洋飞沫参数化方案在台风数值模拟钟的应用[J]. 热带海洋学报, 2010, 29(3):17-27.]

[1] 王萍, 郑晓静. 非平稳风沙运动研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(7): 786-794.
[2] 刘首华,牟林,刘克修,王兴,李欢,高佳. 畸形波研究的进展及存在问题[J]. 地球科学进展, 2013, 28(6): 665-673.
[3] 张克存,屈建军,牛清河,张伟民,韩庆杰. 青藏铁路沿线砾石方格固沙机理风洞模拟研究[J]. 地球科学进展, 2010, 25(3): 284-289.
[4] 黄宁,辜艳丹. 粉尘释放和沉积机制的研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2009, 24(11): 1175-1184.
[5] 李 华,杨世伦. 潮间带盐沼植物对海岸沉积动力过程影响的研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2007, 22(6): 583-591.
[6] 李宁,顾卫,杜子璇,史培军,任学慧,KevinLevy. 内蒙古中西部地区不同土壤类型下土壤水分的研究[J]. 地球科学进展, 2006, 21(2): 151-156.