Galimov E M. The Biological Fractionation of Isotopes. New York: A cademic Press, INC, 1985. 658～660.
 Park R, Epstein S. Carbon isotope fraction during photosythesis. Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 1960, 27(1/2): 110～126.
 Degens E T. Biogeochemistry of stable carbon isotopes.In:Eghinton G,Murphy M T,eds.Organic Geochemistry. Heideberg: Springer-verlag, 1969.304～329.
 Degens E T, Behrend M, Gotthardt B, et al. Metabolic fractionation of carbon isotopes in marine plankton. Ⅱ: data on samples collected off the coast of peru and ecuador. Deep Sea Res, 1968, 15: 11～20.
 涂大正主编. 植物生理学. 长春: 东北师大出版社, 1989.
 Farquhar G D, Oleary M H, Berry J A. On the relationship between carbon isotope discrimination and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration in leaves. Aust J Physiol, 1982, 9: 121～137.
 Keeling C D. A mechanism for cyclic enrichment of carbon-12 by terrestrial plants. Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 1961,24: 299～313.
 O′Leary M H.Carbon fractionation in plants.Phytochemistry,1981,20:553～567.
 Schleser G H, Jayasekera R. δ13C variations of leaves in forests as an indication of reassimilated CO2 from the soil. Oecologia, 1985, 65:536～542.
 Vogel J C. Fractionation of carbon isotopes during photosynthesis. Heide berg: Springer-verlag, 1980. 801～830.
 Saurer M,Sigenthaler U.The climate-carbon isotope relationship in tree rings and the signficance of site conditions.Tellus, 1995, (46B): 320～330.
 Francey R J, Farquhar G D. An explanation of 13C/12C variations in tree rings. Nature, 1982, 295: 28～31.
 Brugnoli E, Hubick K T, Von Caemmerer S, et al. Correlation between the carbon isotope discrimination in leaf starch and sugars of C3 plants and the ratio of intercellular and atmospheric partial pressures of carbon dioxide. Plant Physiol, 1988, 88: 1 418～1 424.
 Farquhar G D, Ehleringer J R, Hubick K T. Carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthesis. Ann Rev Plant Physiol, 1989, 40: 503～537.
 Stuiver M,Braziunas T F.Tree cell ulose 13C/12C isotope ratios and climatic change.Nature, 1987, (328): 58～60.
 Zimmerman J K,Ehleringer J R. Carbon isotope ratios are correlated with irradiance levels in the Panamanian orchid catasetum viridiflavam. Oecologia, 1990, (83): 247～249.
 Yakir D, Zssar A, Gat J, et al. 13C and 12C of wood from the Roman Siege rampart in Masada, Israel (AD70～73):evidence for a less arid climate for the region. Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 1988, 58: 3 335～3 539.
 Francey R J,Gifford R M,sharkey T D,et al.Physiological influences on carbon isotope discrimination in huon pine. Oecologia, 1985, 44:241～247.
 Kobrner C H, Farquhar G D. R oksandic Z.A global survey of carbon isotope discrimination in plants from high altitude. Oecologia,1988,74:623～632.
 KeeLing C D,Mook W G,Tans P P.Recent trends in the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric carbon dioxide.Nature,1979, 277: 121～123.
 Vogel J C. Recycling of carbon in a forest environment. Oecol Plant, 1978, 13: 89～94.
 Medina E, Minchin P. Stratification of δ13C value of leaves in Amazonian rain forests. Oecologia, 1980, 45: 377～378.
 Steven W,Leavitt.South American trees show declining δ13C trend.Tellus, 1994, 46B: 152～157.
 Kobrner C H, Farquhar G D, Wang S C. Carbon isotope discriminate by plants follows latitudinal and altitudinal trends. Oecologia, 1991,88: 30～40.
 Lipp J, Trimborn P, Fritz P, et al. Stable isotope in tree ring cellulose and climatic change. Tellus, 1991, 43B: 322
 Balesdent J. Site-related δ13C of tree leaves and soil organic matter in a temperate forest.Ecology, 1993, 74(6) :1 713～1 721.
 Farquhar G D, Wong S C. An empirical model of stomatal conductance. Aust J Plant Physiol, 1984, 11: 191～210.
 Ramesh R, Bhattacharya S K, Gopalan K. Climatic correlations in the stable isotope records of silver fir trees from kashmir. India Earth and Plantary Sci Lett, 1986, 79: 66～74.
 Wong S C,Cowan Z R,Farquhar G D.Leaf conductance in relation to rate of CO2 assimilation,influence of nitrogen nutrition, phosphora natrition, photo flux density and ambient partial pressure of CO2 during on togeny. Plant Physiol, 1985, 78: 821～825.
 Berry J, Troughton J H, Bjorkman O. Effect of oxygen concent ration during growth on carbon isotope discrimination in C3 and C4 species of Atriplex. Washington:Carnegie Institution Year Book, 1972, 71: 158～161.
 Brugnoli E,lauteri M. Effects of salinity on stomatal conductance,photo synthetic capacity,and carbon isotope discrimination of salt-tolerant and salt -sensitive C3 non-halophytes. Plant Physiol, 1991, 95: 628～635.