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地球科学进展  2007, Vol. 22 Issue (1): 58-65    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2007.01.0058
综述与评述     
农业水生产力研究进展
刘 鹄,赵文智
中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所临泽农田生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站,寒旱区流域水文及应用生态实验室;中国生态系统研究网络临泽内陆河流域综合研究站,甘肃 兰州 730000
Advances in Researches of Agriculture Water Productivity
LIU Hu, ZHAO Wen-zhi
Linze National Field Station for Farmland Ecosystem, Hydrology and Ecology Laboratory of Watershed,CAREERI, CAS, Lanzhou 730000,China; Linze Inland River Basin Comprehensive Research Station, CERN, Lanzhou 730000,China
 全文: PDF(122 KB)  
摘要:

文章系统阐述了农业水生产力概念的发展过程,综合分析了影响农业水生产力的主要因素,详细列举了不同尺度上评估农业水生产力所需的水流及产出计算方法,给出了4种主要农作物在全球范围内的水生产力的分布范围与空间格局,并从提高水分利用效率、加强田间水资源管理、选择适宜的种植模式和栽培技术以及培育更加高效的农作物品种4个方面全面综述了各种水生产力提高策略。指出在未来的水生产力研究中还需要强调农户的参与以及学科间的协作,加强水生产力尺度效应、水权与水价问题、虚拟水交易、水生产力提高措施对环境影响等方面的研究。

关键词: 水生产力利用效率粮食安全提高策略尺度效应    
Abstract:

Both the rapid population growth and high urbanization rate place immediate pressures on agriculture for increased production while at the same time create new demands for water  which might have to be relocated from agriculture use. As water becomes scarce and food requirements increase, there will be a need to produce more food using less water, to protect the quality of water and the environment, particularly in developing countries. Concept of water productivity (WP), which can be defined as the amount of output or value per unit of water consumed, provides a useful framework to understand where and when water can be saved. Scholars even pointed out that the challenge of feeding tomorrow's world population is largely dependent on improved WP. Therefore, this paper aimed to provide a brief review on recent advances in agriculture water productivity (AWP). The evolution of the idea and concept of WP was introduced in the first part of this paper, and then the main affecting factors of AWP were analyzed in the second one. After enumerating the technical requirements and evaluation methodologies of WP in the third part, the range and patterns of globally measured Crop Water Productivity (CWP) of wheat, rice, cotton and maize were displayed, and then the improvement strategies of AWP were reviewed to illustrate the large opportunities for obtaining higher AWP from promoting water-use efficient techniques, adopting efficient on-farm water management, and selecting proper cropping pattern and cultural practices to developing more efficient crop varieties. It is pointed out that farmers' participation and Cross discipline collaboration should be promoted in the future, and also the researches on the scale issues, water price and water rights, virtual water transfers, environmental effects of CWP improvement practice and so on, should be further enhanced.

Key words: scale effects.    Water productivity    Use efficiency    Food security    Improvement strategies
收稿日期: 2006-06-08 出版日期: 2007-01-10
:  Q14  
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金面上项目“荒漠河岸林生态格局与过程水文学机制研究”(编号:40571026)资助.

通讯作者: 刘鹄(1980-),男,甘肃兰州人,助研,在读博士,主要从事生态水文学方面的研究工作.E-mail:lhayz@lzb.ac.cn     E-mail: lhayz@lzb.ac.cn
作者简介: 刘鹄(1980-),男,甘肃兰州人,助研,在读博士,主要从事生态水文学方面的研究工作.E-mail:lhayz@lzb.ac.cn
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引用本文:

刘鹄,赵文智. 农业水生产力研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2007, 22(1): 58-65.

LIU Hu, ZHAO Wen-zhi. Advances in Researches of Agriculture Water Productivity. Advances in Earth Science, 2007, 22(1): 58-65.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2007.01.0058        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2007/V22/I1/58

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