地球科学进展 ›› 2022, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (9): 899 -914. doi: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2022.058

综述与评述 上一篇    下一篇

山地冰川生态系统微生物研究现状与展望
胡扬 1 , 2( ), 汪子微 1 , 2, 蒋洪毛 1 , 2, 陈有超 3 , 4, 刘巧 1, 段宝利 1, 鲁旭阳 1( )   
  1. 1.山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室,中国科学院、水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所,四川 成都 610041
    2.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
    3.浙江农林大学省部共建亚热带森林培育 国家重点实验室,浙江 杭州 311300
    4.浙江农林大学资源与环境学院,浙江 杭州 311300
  • 收稿日期:2022-05-05 修回日期:2022-08-11 出版日期:2022-09-10
  • 通讯作者: 鲁旭阳 E-mail:huyang@imde.ac.cn;xylu@imde.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目“复杂下垫面海洋性冰川消融过程及其空间异质性”(41871069);四川省杰出青年科技人才项目“贡嘎山冰川表碛微生物分子生态网络及其驱动的碳氮转化”(2020JDJQ0002)

Current Knowledge and Future Prospects Regarding Microorganisms in Mountain Glacier Ecosystems

Yang HU 1 , 2( ), Ziwei WANG 1 , 2, Hongmao JIANG 1 , 2, Youchao CHEN 3 , 4, Qiao LIU 1, Baoli DUAN 1, Xuyang LU 1( )   

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Mountain Surface Processes and Ecological Regulation, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
    2.College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3.The State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou 311300, China
    4.College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou 311300, China
  • Received:2022-05-05 Revised:2022-08-11 Online:2022-09-10 Published:2022-09-28
  • Contact: Xuyang LU E-mail:huyang@imde.ac.cn;xylu@imde.ac.cn
  • About author:HU Yang (1996-), female, Qujing City, Yunnan Province, Ph. D student. Research area includes microbial ecology in glaciers. E-mail: huyang@imde.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China “Deglaciation process and spatial heterogeneity of temperate glacier with complex underlying surface”(41871069);The Sichuan Science and Technology Program “Molecular ecological networks, carbon and nitrogen transformation processes driven by microbes in supraglacial debris from Mt. Gongga”(2020JDJQ0002)

山地冰川生态系统包含冰、雪、冰川融水、冰尘、沉积物、冰碛物和土壤等多种栖息地,孕育了独特的生物群落,由耐寒性微生物占主导。由于对气候变化极其敏感,近几十年来,全球范围内的山地冰川正在急剧退缩。依据垂直分层特征、空间位置、环境特征和定殖微生物营养类型等,将山地冰川生态系统分为4个生态区:冰川表面区域、冰川内部区域、冰川下部区域和冰川前缘区域。从微生物的生理特征、群落组成、影响微生物分布和多样性的生态因素等几个方面,综述了山地冰川生态系统不同生态区的微生物研究现状。近10年来对冰川生态系统微生物的研究主要关注以下几方面内容: 嗜冷、耐冷细菌和真菌的分离培养; 微生物群落组成和多样性特征; 微生物群落构建和演替过程; 微生物介导的元素循环过程; 生态因子与微生物群落相互关系。目前,大部分研究集中在冰川前缘和表面区域,且主要关注细菌类群的组成和多样性。未来应该把冰川表面、内部、下部及前缘区域作为一个整体系统考虑,开展针对不同生境的多种微生物类群的长期监测和研究,重点关注类群间交互作用和功能方面。以期更好地理解极端环境下微生物介导的生态过程及其发挥的生态作用,这对维护山地冰川及其相关生态系统稳定具有重要意义。

Mountain glacier ecosystems contain diverse habitats, including ice, snow, meltwater, cryoconite, sediment, debris, and soil. These habitats harbor unique biomes that are dominated by cold-tolerant microbes. Mountain glaciers have responded strongly to climate change and have considerably shrunk in size over recent decades. Mountain glacier ecosystem was divided into supraglacial zone, englacial zone, subglacial zone, and proglacial zone, according to the vertical stratifications, horizontal locations, environmental characteristics, and trophic types of colonized microbes. This study reviewed research focused on the physiological characteristics, community composition, and diversity of the microbial community and ecological factors driving their distributions in these four zones. The studies (2010-2022) about the microbial communities in mountain glacier ecosystems that were reviewed mainly investigated the following: isolation and culture of psychrotrophs and psychrophiles; characteristics of microbial community composition and diversity; microbial community assemblage and succession processes; biogeochemical cycles driven by the microbes; and interactions between ecological factors and the microbial community. Most of the studies were conducted in the proglacial and supraglacial zones and mainly focused on the composition and diversity of the bacterial community. In future studies, all zones should be considered as an integrated system to conduct long-term monitoring and investigation of multiple microbial communities in different habitats. They should also focus on microbial interactions and functions. This study improves understanding about the ecological processes mediated by microbes and their ecological roles in extreme environments, both of which have implications for maintaining the stability of glaciers and surrounding ecosystems.

中图分类号: 

图1 山地冰川微生物的生存机制
Fig. 1 The survival mechanisms of microorganisms in mountain glacier ecosystem
图2 山地冰川生态系统示意图
Fig. 2 The diagram of mountain glacier ecosystem
表1 山地冰川生态系统四大生态区域的环境条件及典型微生物类群
Table 1 Environmental conditions and microbial taxa from four ecological zones in mountain glacier ecosystem
生态区域 生境 环境特征 碳源 能源 电子供体 存在的营养类型 主要类群 代表属 所属门类

积雪、表层冰;融水径流、湖塘;冰尘穴;表碛、岩石等 强光、强辐射、温度波动、大气沉降等 二氧化碳,有机物 光能,化学能

有机物

还原性无机物(氢气、硫化氢、硫、水)

光能无机自养型 雪藻,硅藻,蓝细菌 Polaromonas 33 - 34 Proteobacteria
Sphingomonas 35 Proteobacteria
Methylibium 33 Proteobacteria
Janthinobacterium 36 Proteobacteria
光能有机异养型 紫色硫细菌 Phormidesmis 22 Cyanobacteria
Arthrobacter 37 - 38 Actinobacteria
Pedobacter 39 Bacteroidetes
Flavobacterium 40 Bacteroidetes
Bacillus 41 Firmicutes
化能有机异养型 真菌和微型动物 Rhodotorula 42 Basidiomycota
Articulospora 43 Ascomycota
PlectusTylenchus 44 Nematoda
Adineta 44 Rotifera
Hypsibius 2 Tardigrada

冰体、冰溶洞、冰裂隙、冰内液态水脉等 无光、冰冻、低氧、高压、持续低温 二氧化碳 化学能

有机物

还原性无机物(氢气、二价铁离子、水)

化能无机自养型 产甲烷菌,硝化细菌,铁氧化细菌 Pseudomonas 39 45 Proteobacteria
Sphingomonas 45 Proteobacteria
Polaromonas 46 Proteobacteria
Bacillus 45 Firmicutes
化能有机异养型 酵母真菌 Pedobacter 46 Actinobacteria
CryobacteriumFlavobacterium 46 Bacteroidetes
Cryptococcus 47 Bacteroidetes
RhodotorulaSporobolomyces 47 Basidiomycete
Mrakia 48 Basidiomycete

冰下湖泊、径流;基岩、沉积物等 无光、厌氧、高压、持续低温 二氧化碳 化学能

有机物

还原性无机物(氢气、二价铁离子、水)

化能无机自养型 产甲烷菌,硝化细菌,铁氧化细菌 Bacillus 49 Firmicutes
Methylobacter 50 Proteobacteria
Polaromonas 50 Proteobacteria
化能有机异养型 酵母真菌和 微型动物 Sulfuricurvum 50 Proteobacteria
Flavobacterium 51 Bacteroidetes
HortaeaMeripilus 51 Ascomycota
AspergillusSimplicillium 52 Ascomycota

冰前河流、湖泊、峡湾;沉积物、土壤等 受冰川水文、地貌等变化强烈影响 二氧化碳,有机物 光能,化学能

有机物

还原性无机物(氢气、硫化氢、硫、水)

光能无机自养型 硅藻和 蓝细菌 Flavobacterium 53 Bacteroidetes
Leeuwenhoekiella 54 Bacteroidetes
Pseudomonas 23 Proteobacteria
光能有机异养型 紫色硫细菌 Arthrobacter 24 Actinobacteria
Nitrosomonas 55 Proteobacteria
Bradyrhizobium 55 Proteobacteria
Methylobacterium 55 Proteobacteria
化能有机异养型 真菌和微型动物 Tolypocladium 56 Ascomycete
Stropharia 57 Basidiomycota
RhabditisAlaimus 58 Nematode
图3 20102022年以山地冰川微生物为研究主题所涉及的国家和地区
山地冰川是除南极冰盖和格陵兰冰盖之外,全世界各纬度范围分布的山地冰川
Fig. 3 The countries and regions of studies involved in microorganisms of mountain glacier ecosystem from 2010 to 2022
Mountain glaciers (alpine glaciers) are those formed in the high mountainous region over the world, except the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet
图4 20102022年山地冰川生态系统微生物研究的热点生态区
Fig. 4 The hot-zone of studies involved in microorganisms of mountain glacier ecosystem from 2010 to 2022
图5 20102022年山地冰川生态系统微生物研究关注的热点对象
Fig. 5 The hot-object of studies involved in microorganisms of mountain glacier ecosystem from 2010 to 2022
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