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地球科学进展  2014, Vol. 29 Issue (2): 275-284    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2014.02.0275
可持续发展研究     
基于生态系统的海洋管理理论与实践
刘慧1, 苏纪兰2
1 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所,山东 青岛 266071; 2 海洋动力过程与卫星海洋学国家海洋局重点实验室,国家海洋局第二海洋研究所,浙江 杭州 310012
Theory and Practice for Marine Ecosystem-Based Management
Liu Hui1, Su Jilan2
1.Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; 2.Laboratory of Ocean Dynamic Processes and Satellite, Second Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Hangzhou 310012, China
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摘要:

海洋孕育了丰富的生态系统服务功能,包括为人类提供多种海产食物、净化海洋环境和提供宜人景观及发展空间等。随着工程科技水平的提高,人类对海洋资源和空间的开发利用越来越多、越来越快,对海洋生态系统的影响也越来越大,这一问题在我国尤为突出。近20年来一些发达国家通过推行基于生态系统的海洋管理(MEBM),在海洋生态系统的框架下规范和管理开发活动,特别是在解决区域性海洋管理问题方面取得了一定成效,值得我们借鉴。概述了海洋生态系统及其服务功能,回顾了海洋开发中存在的问题以及MEBM的发展历程,系统阐述了MEBM的原则和措施,剖析了国内外MEBM的成功案例,探讨了在中国实施MEBM的必要性和前提条件。近年来,我国依据海洋功能区划来管理海洋开发已取得一定的成果。建议以此为基础,强化相关生态科学研究及相应技术和法规支撑,从而为我国海洋经济可持续发展提供保障。

关键词: 海洋空间规划海洋生态系统海洋管理    
Abstract:

The ocean entails mankind a vast reserve of ecosystem services, providing rich seafood, clean environment, pleasant scenery, space for development and so forth. In recent years, advances in engineering practices and technologies have enabled exploitation of the ocean on a large scale and at a faster pace, resulting in deleterious impacts on the ocean and coastal ecosystems; which is clearly reflected in China’s case. Over the last twenty years, a number of countries have implemented Marine Ecosystem—Based Management (MEBM), by supervising and governing development activities under the framework of marine ecosystems, which has obtained promising results, especially in coping with regional governance issues. China can learn much from these beneficial experiences in dealing with its marine ecosystem problems encountered today. In this paper, the characteristics and functions of the marine ecosystems are summarized, and ecosystem problems encountered globally and nationally in marine development along with the evolution of MEBM are briefly reviewed. Next, the principles and measures for MEBM are elucidated in details, successful MEBM practices at home and abroad are analyzed, and the necessity and precondition for implementing MEBM in China are discussed. China’s progress, together with its drawbacks, in recent years in governing ocean development based on the National Marine Functional Zoning is then discussed. Finally, to ensure sustainable development of China’s marine economy, we propese to enhance ecological science studies, invest in ecofriendly technologies, and strengthen relevant laws and regulations in support of MEBM.

Key words: Marine ecosystem    Marine management    Marine spatial planning.
收稿日期: 2013-10-24 出版日期: 2014-02-10
:  P735  
基金资助:

中国环境与发展国际合作委员会项目“中国海洋可持续发展的生态环境问题与政策研究”(编号:C/GH/S/09/497); 中国科学院咨询项目“中国海洋与海岸工程的生态安全中若干科学问题及对策建议研究”资助.

作者简介: 刘慧(1967-),女,黑龙江哈尔滨人,研究员,主要从事海洋生态学和可持续海水养殖技术研究.E-mail:liuhui@ysfri.ac.cn
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引用本文:

刘慧, 苏纪兰. 基于生态系统的海洋管理理论与实践[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(2): 275-284.

Liu Hui,Su Jilan. Theory and Practice for Marine Ecosystem-Based Management. Advances in Earth Science, 2014, 29(2): 275-284.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2014.02.0275        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2014/V29/I2/275

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