Please wait a minute...
img img
高级检索
地球科学进展  1999, Vol. 14 Issue (6): 571-576    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.1999.06.0571
综述与评述     
富营养化对海洋生态系统的影响及其围隔实验研究
陈 尚,朱明远,马 艳,李瑞香,李宝华,吕瑞华
国家海洋局第一海洋研究所,山东 青岛 266003
STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF EUTROPHICATION ON MARINE ECOSYSTEM BY MESOCOSM EXPERIMENTS
CHEN Shang,ZHU Mingyuan,MA Yan,LI Ruixiang,LI Baohua,LV Ruihua

First Institute of Oceanography,SOA,Qingdao 266003,China

 全文: PDF(267 KB)  
摘要:

陆源的营养盐输入引起海洋中的富营养化,提高了水体中营养盐含量,改变了水体中营养盐比例,引起浮游植物水华甚至赤潮。水华发生时由于沿传统食物链的能流在浮游植物环节阻塞,能量过多地分配到微生物环,细菌大量繁殖分解有机物,导致水体缺氧,造成鱼虾贝类窒息死亡。围隔系统是物质相对守恒的系统,围隔与自然海水没有水交换,利用现场围隔实验可以定量地、系统地研究海洋生态系统对富营养化的响应。围隔实验现已成为全球海洋生态系统动力学研究的重要手段。

关键词: 富营养化海洋生态系统围隔生态模型微生物环    
Abstract:

The eutrophication in coastal sea occurred mainly by the input of the nutrients from land,and increase the concentration of nutrients and change the ratio among the nutrients and often cause the appearance of phytoplankton bloom or redtide. When the bloom occurs the most energy is allocated the microbial loop, so bacteria reproduce intensively and decompose the organic matter and consume extensively dissolved oxygen, the anoxic environment appears and causes the extensive death of fish, shrimp and shell-fish for choke. The response of marine ecosystem to the eutrophication may be studied and measured quantitatively by the in situ mesocosm experiment. The mesocosm system is mass-conservative system, without the water exchange with the natural sea water, so the system become relatively simple and in which only ecological process occur. Based on the results of mesocosm experiment, the ecosystem model may be developed and validated. The mesocosm experiment is becoming the important tool to carry out research on the global marine ecosystem dynamics(GLOBEC).

Key words:  Eutrophication    Marine ecosystem    Mesocosm    Microbial loop    Ecological model.
收稿日期: 1999-03-30 出版日期: 1999-12-01
:  Q178.53  
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目“利用围隔实验研究海洋浮游生态系统对富营养化的响应”(编号:49876030)和国家海洋局地球流体力学和数值模拟重点实验室项目资助。

通讯作者: 陈尚,男,1972年10月出生于贵州,助理研究员,主要从事海洋生态学研究。    
作者简介: 陈尚,男,1972年10月出生于贵州,助理研究员,主要从事海洋生态学研究。
服务  
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章  

引用本文:

陈 尚,朱明远,马 艳,李瑞香,李宝华,吕瑞华. 富营养化对海洋生态系统的影响及其围隔实验研究[J]. 地球科学进展, 1999, 14(6): 571-576.

CHEN Shang,ZHU Mingyuan,MA Yan,LI Ruixiang,LI Baohua,LV Ruihua. STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF EUTROPHICATION ON MARINE ECOSYSTEM BY MESOCOSM EXPERIMENTS. Advances in Earth Science, 1999, 14(6): 571-576.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.1999.06.0571        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y1999/V14/I6/571

〔1〕Smetacek V. Coastal eutrophication: causes and consequences〔A〕In: Mantourd M, ed. Ocean Margin Processes in Global Change〔C〕. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1991. 251~279.
〔2〕于占国.对虾暴发性流行病的病因及预防对策分析〔J〕.海洋环境科学,1995, 14(2):53~60.
〔3〕Radach, G J. Long-term change of the annual cycles of meteorological, hydrographic, nutrient and phytoplankton time series at Heligoland and at LV Elbe I in the German Bight〔J〕.Cont Shelf Res, 1990, 10: 305~328.
〔4〕Wulff F G. The changing pelagic ecosystem of the Baltic Sea〔J〕. Ophelia Suppl, 1986, 4: 299~319.
〔5〕Billen G M. A nitrogen budget of the Scheldt hydrographical basin〔J〕. Neth J Sea Res, 1985, 19: 223~230.
〔6〕Bonsdorff E, Blomqvist E M, Matilla J,et al. Long-term changes and coastal eutrophication. Examples from the Aland Islands and the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea〔A〕. In:Castel J,ed.Long-Term-Changes-in-Marine-Ecosystems〔C〕.Paris-France: Gauthiers-Villars, 1997, 20(1) :319~328.
〔7〕Zeiss B, Kroncke I.Long-term macrofaunal studies in a subtidal habitat off Norderney (East Frisia, Germany) from 1978 to 1994, 1: The late winter samples〔A〕. In: Castel J, ed.Long-Term-Changes-in-Marine-Ecosystem s〔C〕. Paris: Gauthiers-Villars, 1997,20(1): 311~318.
〔8〕Koester M, Dahlke S, Meyer-Reil L A. Microbiological studies along a gradient of eutrophication in a shallow coastal inlet in the southern Baltic Sea〔J〕. Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 1997, 152(1~3): 27~39.
〔9〕Witek Z, Ochocki S. Phytoplankton primary production and its utilization by the pelagic community in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk (southern Baltic)〔J〕. Mar Ecol Prog Ser,1997, 148(1~3): 169~186.
〔10〕Li Guanguo. Different Types of Ecosystem Experiments〔A〕.In: Lalli C M, ed. Enclosed Experimental Marine Ecosystems: A Review and Recommendations〔C〕. London:Springer-Verlag, 1990.7~19.
〔11〕Strickland J D H, Terhune L D B. The study of in situ marine photosynthesis using a large plastic bag〔J〕. Limnology and Oceanography, 1961,6:93~96.
〔12〕Harrison P J. The manipulation of physical chemical and biological factors to select species from natural phytoplankton communities〔A〕. In: Grice H, Reeve J, ed. Marine Meso-cosms〔C〕. 1982. 275~289.
〔13〕Wong C S, ed. Marine ecosystem enclosed experiments〔A〕.Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Beijing, China. 9~14 May 1987. Otlaway Ont. 1992, 10RC.
〔14〕Lalli C M. Enclosed Experimental Marine Ecosystems: A Review and Recommendations—A contribution of SCOR WG 85〔M〕. New York: Speinger-Verlag,1990.
〔15〕Rokeby B E. Manual on marine experimental ecosystems〔M〕. Scinentific Committee on Ocean Research, UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation. Paris, France,1991,178.
〔16〕吴宝铃,李永祺.围隔式海洋实验生态系研究近况〔J〕.海洋科学,1983,(2):44~47.
〔17〕蔡子平,陈孝麟.海洋围隔生态系中叶绿素a的变化及影响因素〔J〕.台湾海峡,1991,10(3):229~234.
〔18〕林昱,唐森铭.海洋围隔生态系中无机氮对浮游植物演替的影响〔J〕.生态学报,1994,14(3):323~326.
〔19〕Van der Wal P. Primary productivity and calcification rate in blooms of the coclolithophorid Eciliania huxleyi Hay et Mohler developing in mesocosms〔J〕. Sarsia,1994,79(4):401~408.
〔20〕Heip C. Eutrophication and zoobenthos dynamics〔J〕.Ophelia, 1995, 41: 113~136.
〔21〕林昱,庄栋法.初级赤潮成因研究的围隔实验结果:Ⅱ.浮游植物群落演替与甲藻赤潮〔J〕.应用生态学报,1994,5(3):314~318.
〔22〕陈慈美,纳污海域营养物质形态及含量水平与浮游植物增殖竞争关系:Ⅰ.磷的效应〔J〕.海洋学报,1990,9(1):6~12.
〔23〕Escaravage S D. Response of phytoplankton communities to phosphorus input reduction in mesocosm experiments〔J〕.J Exp Mar Biol Ecol, 1996, 188(1):55~79.
〔24〕唐森铭.围隔生态学内富营养对水体营养盐结构的扰动〔J〕.海洋学报,1993,15(2):135~140.
〔25〕林昱,庄栋法,初析赤潮成因研究的围隔实验结果——几个理化因子与硅藻赤潮的关系〔J〕.海洋与湖沼,1994,25(2):139~145.
〔26〕Harad S. Analysis of planktonic ecosystem structure in coastal seesusja large-scale stratified ecosystem〔A〕. In:Bally H,ed. Proceedings of the 18th Biennial Conference of the International Association of Water Quality〔C〕. 1996. 219~226.
〔27〕Jaclbsen A. Effects of increased concentration of nitrate and phosphate during a spring bloom experiment in mesocosm〔J〕. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol, 1995,187(2):239~251.
〔28〕Becker M E. Effect of nutrient loading on benthic microalgae productivity and taxonomic assemblage〔R〕. In: Luodin W K, ed. Twenty-fourth Annual Benthic Ecology Meeting Columbia USA〔C〕. 1996. 18.
〔29〕Isaksson I, Lpihl, Eutrophication-related changes in macrovegetation and foraging to young cod: A mesocosm experiment〔J〕. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol, 1994, 177(2):203~317.
〔30〕Brockman U. Pelagic Mesocosms:Ⅱ, Process studies〔A〕.In:Lalli, ed. Enclosed Experimental Marine Ecosystems: A Review and Recommendations〔C〕. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990. 88~108.
〔31〕Koshikawa H. Relative contribution of bacterial and photosynthetic production to metazooplankton as carbon sources〔J〕. J Plankton Res, 1996,18(2):2 269~2 281.
〔32〕Takahashi M. Pelagic Mesocosms: I. Food Chain Analysis〔A〕. In: Lalli C M, ed. Enclosed Experimental Marine Ecosystems: A Review and Recommendations〔C〕. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990. 61~80.
〔33〕Sondergaard M. Extracellour organic carbon (EOC) released by phytoplankton and bacterial production〔J〕. Oikos, 1985,45:323~332.
〔34〕Pitta P. Nano and microplankton in Iraklion Bay Crete: Comparison of coastal waters and mesocosm enclosure assem-blages〔J〕. Biol and Ecol of Shallow Coastal Waters, 1995,8(1):79~86.
〔35〕王荣,焦念志.胶州湾的初级生产力和新生产力〔A〕.见:董金海,焦念志编.胶州湾生态学研究〔C〕.北京:科学出版社,1995.125~136.
〔36〕焦念志,肖天.胶州湾微生物二次生产力〔A〕.见:董金海,焦念志编.胶州湾生态学研究〔C〕.北京:科学出版社,1995.112~117.
〔37〕Kivi K, Kaitala S. Nutrient limitation and grazing control of the pelagic plankton community during annual succession〔J〕.Limnol Oceanogr, 1993, 38(5):893~905.
〔38〕林昱,唐森铭.可溶性铁对某些硅藻生物增值的影响〔J〕.海洋通报,1994,13(5):14~18.
〔39〕Landry M R, Barber R T. Iron and grazing constraints on primary production in the central equatorial Pacific: an Eq-Pac synthesis〔J〕. Limnol Oceanogr, 1997, 42(3):405~418.
〔40〕Wang Hui. NSFC strategy on funding global change programs with the special fererence of GLOBEC〔J〕. J of Ocean Univ of Qingdao, 1999, 29(1):75~80.

[1] 刘慧, 苏纪兰. 基于生态系统的海洋管理理论与实践[J]. 地球科学进展, 2014, 29(2): 275-284.
[2] 杨永琼,陈敬安,王敬富,曾艳. 沉积物磷原位钝化技术研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2013, 28(6): 674-684.
[3] 陈莹,庄国顺,郭志刚. 近海营养盐和微量元素的大气沉降[J]. 地球科学进展, 2010, 25(7): 682-690.
[4] 黄廷林,柴蓓蓓. 水源水库水质污染与富营养化控制技术研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2009, 24(6): 588-596.
[5] 高会旺,祁建华,石金辉,石广玉,冯士筰. 亚洲沙尘的远距离输送及对海洋生态系统的影响[J]. 地球科学进展, 2009, 24(1): 1-10.
[6] 严燕儿,赵斌,郭海强,吴千红. 生态系统碳通量估算中耦合涡度协方差与遥感技术研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2008, 23(8): 884-894.
[7] 周俊,邓伟,刘伟龙. 沟渠湿地的水文和生态环境效应研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2008, 23(10): 1079-1083.
[8] 秦伯强,王小冬,汤祥明,冯胜,张运林. 太湖富营养化与蓝藻水华引起的饮用水危机——原因与对策[J]. 地球科学进展, 2007, 22(9): 896-906.
[9] 王辉,刘桂梅,万莉颖. 数据同化在海洋生态模型中的应用和研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2007, 22(10): 989-996.
[10] 陈尚,张朝晖,马艳,石洪华,马安青,郑伟,王其翔,彭亚林,刘键. 我国海洋生态系统服务功能及其价值评估研究计划[J]. 地球科学进展, 2006, 21(11): 1127-1133.
[11] 苏纪兰;唐启升. 我国海洋生态系统基础研究的发展——国际趋势和国内需求[J]. 地球科学进展, 2005, 20(2): 139-143.
[12] 唐启升;苏纪兰;孙松;张经;黄大吉;金显仕;仝龄. 中国近海生态系统动力学研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2005, 20(12): 1288-1299.
[13] 徐永福;浦一芬;赵亮. 海洋碳循环模式的研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2005, 20(10): 1106-1115.
[14] 赵生才. 我国湖泊富营养化的发生机制与控制对策[J]. 地球科学进展, 2004, 19(1): 138-140.
[15] 吴增茂;谢红琴;张志南;万小芳. 海洋生态预报的复杂性与研究方法的讨论[J]. 地球科学进展, 2004, 19(1): 81-086.