The idea of modern geoanalysis is briefly described. Modern technologies and methods of geoanalysis are introduced and reviewed from six aspects: bulk analysis; micro-(in situ)analysis and element distribution analysis; structure, image and valence state analysis; organic and speciation analysis; age-dating and stable-isotope methods; and field(in situ) analysis techniques. The main content of each part is as follows:
The idea of modern geoanalysis is shown by describing its history,development,formation of the idea and development trends in the future.
Currently,the most important Bulk Analysis techniques are X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry(XRF), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry(ICP-AES), ICP Mass Spectrometry（ICP-MS）, Instrument Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)and Total Reflection XRF（TRXRF）.
Microanalysis(in situ)and Element Distribution Analysis(element map) techniques include:①Electron microbeam techniques: Electron Microprobe Analysis（EMPA）, Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM）, Analytical Electron Microscopy （AEM）and Transmitted Electron Microscopy (TEM);②X-ray and high-energy ion-beam techniques: Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Microprobe（SRXRM）and Scanning Nuclear Microprobe（SNM）;③Laser and low energy ion-beam techniques: Laser Ablation ICP-MS(LA-ICP-MS) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry（SIMS）.
Structure,image, and valence state analysis techniques involve: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD),various Electron Microscopy(EMPA, SEM, AEM and TEM)and some surface analysis techniques: Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis(ESCA)，Auger Electron Spectroscopy(AES), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure(EXAFS), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure(XANES) and Scanning Tunneling Microscope(STM)or Atomic Force Microscope(AFM).
As a result of demands of energy-minerals and environment-geoscience research,the organic component and speciation analysis has been other important field in modern geoanalysis. Main techniques are Gas Chromatography(GC),Mass Spectrometry(MS),High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC),Capillary Electrophoresis(CE), Laser Laman Spectroscopy(LLS),Fourier Infrared Spectrometry(FIRS), chemical sensor and their combined techniques.
Dating and stable isotope analysis techniques include: the conventional TIMS,NIMS and new micro-dating techniques: SIMS,SHRIMP,LA-ICP-MS,AMS and Laser probe Ar/Ar dating.
The field and in situ analysis techniques include: the geochemical detect of extraterrestrial materials, the analysis techniques on board and under water for marine mineral resources, the field analysis for general survey, mining, drill core and well logging.