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地球科学进展  2003, Vol. 18 Issue (3): 476-482    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2003.03.0476
研究论文     
地球科学中的现代分析技术
王毅民,王晓红,高玉淑
国家地质实验测试中心,北京 100037
MODERN ANALYTICAL TECHNOLOGIES IN EARTH SCIENCES
Wang Yimin,Wang Xiaohong,Gao Yushu
National Research Center of Geoanalysis, Beijing 100037,China
 全文: PDF 
摘要:

简述了现代地质分析的观念,在此基础上,从整体分析、微区原位分析和元素微区分布分析、显微观察和结构与形态分析、有机分析、地质年代学和稳定同位素分析及现场分析技术 6个方面评介了当今地质分析的现代技术与方法。地学需求是地质分析技术发展的原动力,现代分析科学是其发展的技术基础。最后指出了未来地质分析发展的主要趋向。

关键词: 分析技术地质材料分析仪器分析方法    
Abstract:

    The idea of modern geoanalysis is briefly described. Modern technologies and methods of geoanalysis are introduced and reviewed from six aspects: bulk analysis; micro-(in situ)analysis and element distribution analysis; structure, image and valence state analysis; organic and speciation analysis; age-dating and stable-isotope methods; and field(in situ) analysis techniques. The main content of each part is as follows:
    The idea of modern geoanalysis is shown by describing its history,development,formation of the idea and development trends in the future.
    Currently,the most important Bulk Analysis techniques are X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry(XRF), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry(ICP-AES), ICP Mass Spectrometry(ICP-MS), Instrument Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)and Total Reflection XRF(TRXRF).
    Microanalysis(in situ)and Element Distribution Analysis(element map) techniques include:①Electron microbeam techniques: Electron Microprobe Analysis(EMPA), Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM), Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM)and Transmitted Electron Microscopy (TEM);②X-ray and high-energy ion-beam techniques: Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Microprobe(SRXRM)and Scanning Nuclear Microprobe(SNM);③Laser and low energy ion-beam techniques: Laser Ablation ICP-MS(LA-ICP-MS) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry(SIMS).
    Structure,image, and valence state analysis techniques involve: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD),various Electron Microscopy(EMPA, SEM, AEM and TEM)and some surface analysis techniques: Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis(ESCA),Auger Electron Spectroscopy(AES), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure(EXAFS), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure(XANES) and Scanning Tunneling Microscope(STM)or Atomic Force Microscope(AFM).
    As a result of demands of energy-minerals and environment-geoscience research,the organic component and speciation analysis has been other important field in modern geoanalysis. Main techniques are Gas Chromatography(GC),Mass Spectrometry(MS),High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC),Capillary Electrophoresis(CE), Laser Laman Spectroscopy(LLS),Fourier Infrared Spectrometry(FIRS), chemical sensor and their combined techniques.
    Dating and stable isotope analysis techniques include: the conventional TIMS,NIMS and new micro-dating techniques: SIMS,SHRIMP,LA-ICP-MS,AMS and Laser probe Ar/Ar dating.
    The field and in situ analysis techniques include: the geochemical detect of extraterrestrial materials, the analysis techniques on board and under water for marine mineral resources, the field analysis for general survey, mining, drill core and well logging.

Key words: Analytical technology    Analytical method.    Geological material
收稿日期: 2002-08-13 出版日期: 2003-06-01
:  P5    
基金资助:

科技部科技基础性工作专项资金项目“中国海及大陆架沉积物标准物质系列研制“(编号:2001DEB20054)资助.

通讯作者: 王毅民     E-mail: wirma@ht.rol.cn.net
作者简介: 王毅民(1941-),男,河北南宫人,研究员,主要从事地质材料的现代分析技术与方法研究.E-mail:wirma@ht.rol.cn.net
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引用本文:

王毅民,王晓红,高玉淑. 地球科学中的现代分析技术[J]. 地球科学进展, 2003, 18(3): 476-482.

Wang Yimin,Wang Xiaohong,Gao Yushu. MODERN ANALYTICAL TECHNOLOGIES IN EARTH SCIENCES. Advances in Earth Science, 2003, 18(3): 476-482.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2003.03.0476        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2003/V18/I3/476

[1] Potts P J. Geoanalysis: Past, present and future[J].Analyst,1997,122(11):1 179-1 186.

[2] Wang Yimin, Gao Yushu, Wang Xiaohong. The review and prospect on geoanalysis[J]. Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 2001, 29(7):845-851.[王毅民,高玉淑,王晓红.地质分析的历史发展及当今热点[J].分析化学, 2001,29(7):845-851.]