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地球科学进展  2019, Vol. 34 Issue (4): 399-413    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.04.0399
固体地球科学     
胶东三山岛金矿床黄铁矿原位微区微量元素特征及对矿床成因的指示
林祖苇(),赵新福(),熊乐,朱照先
中国地质大学(武汉)资源学院,湖北 武汉 430074
In-situ Trace Element Analysis Characteristics of Pyrite in Sanshandao Gold Deposit in Jiaodong Peninsula: Implications for Ore Genesis
Zuwei Lin(),Xinfu Zhao(),Le Xiong,Zhaoxian Zhu
Faculty of Earth Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
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摘要:

胶东地区是我国最大金成矿聚集区,其金矿床的成因长期以来一直存在很大争议,三山岛金矿床是胶东地区最大的金矿床,通过采用LA-ICP-MS分析不同阶段黄铁矿中微量元素组成,可以探讨成矿流体演化及成矿物质来源。根据野外地质特征及岩相学观察,结合SEM结构分析将三山岛金矿床的黄铁矿分为3个阶段,6个亚类,即黄铁绢英岩化带(Py1)中包裹大量绢云母和石英的Py1-a和表面光滑的Py1-b,石英—黄铁矿±菱铁矿脉(Py2)中富含矿物包裹体的Py2-a和与菱铁矿共生且表面光滑的Py2-b,石英—多金属硫化物脉(Py3)中有很多细粒多金属硫化物包裹体的Py3-a和表面光滑的Py3-b。3个阶段黄铁矿晶格中金含量均很低,大部分小于1×10-6,金主要以可见金形式存在。从早阶段到晚阶段黄铁矿中Au与Ag,Cu,Pb,Sb有较好的正相关性,且含量有逐渐增加的趋势。最早阶段黄铁矿中Co+Ni的含量很高(最高为9 268×10-6),反映了早期黄铁矿可能来源于岩浆岩源区,后期Co/Ni值逐渐降低,暗示了成矿流体温度逐渐降低。结合地质特征和黄铁矿微量元素研究,表明三山岛金矿床成矿物质可能来源于深部岩浆热液储库,通过地震泵机制沿断裂构造多次侵位成矿。

关键词: 三山岛金矿床LA-ICP-MS黄铁矿微量元素矿床成因    
Abstract:

There are controversies about the genesis of the lode gold deposits in Jiaodong area. The Sanshandao gold deposit is the largest one in Jiaodong area. To better understand the genesis of the gold deposit, it is necessary to know the evolution of ore-forming fluid and the source of ore-forming material for the Sanshandao gold deposit. In this paper, the trace element composition of pyrite at different metallogenic stages in the Sanshandao gold deposit was analyzed by using LA-ICP-MS. Based on geological characteristics and petrography observation and SEM analysis, pyrite can be divided into three stages and six classes, including porous Py1-a and smooth Py1-b in pyrite-sericite-quartz alteration (Py1), many mineral inclusions in the Py2-a and smooth Py2-b associated with carbonate in the quartz-pyrite ± siderite veins (Py2), a lot of polymetallic sulfide inclusions hosted Py3-a and Py3-b with smooth and oscillation band in the quartz-polymetallic sulfide vein (Py3). The experimental results show that the gold content is very low in the lattice of pyrite, most of which is less than 1×10-6, and gold mainly occurs in the form of visible gold. The contents of Au, Ag, Cu, Pb and Sb of pyrite gradually increase from early stage to late stage. The high content of Co+Ni in the earliest stage (up to 9268×10-6) reflects that pyrite in the early stage is likely derived from magma, and the Co/Ni ratio gradually decreases, suggesting the decrease of ore forming fluid temperature. Combined with the geological observations and trace elements component of pyrite, the study shows that the genesis of the Sanshandao gold deposit is related to the evolution of magmatic hydrothermal reservoir. The ore-forming fluid is transported several times along the fault by seismic pumping.

Key words: Sanshandao Gold Deposit    LA-ICP-MS    Pyrite    Trace element    Ore genesis.
收稿日期: 2018-12-12 出版日期: 2019-05-27
ZTFLH:  P595  
基金资助: 国家重点研发计划项目“华北东部巨量金来源、迁移与富集机理”(编号:2016YFC0600104)
通讯作者: 赵新福     E-mail: linzw@cug.edu.cn;xfzhao@cug.edu.cn
作者简介: 林祖苇(1993-),男,山东烟台人,硕士研究生,主要从事金矿床地球化学研究. E-mail:linzw@cug.edu.cn
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引用本文:

林祖苇,赵新福,熊乐,朱照先. 胶东三山岛金矿床黄铁矿原位微区微量元素特征及对矿床成因的指示[J]. 地球科学进展, 2019, 34(4): 399-413.

Zuwei Lin,Xinfu Zhao,Le Xiong,Zhaoxian Zhu. In-situ Trace Element Analysis Characteristics of Pyrite in Sanshandao Gold Deposit in Jiaodong Peninsula: Implications for Ore Genesis. Advances in Earth Science, 2019, 34(4): 399-413.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.04.0399        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2019/V34/I4/399

图1  华北克拉通与胶东地区区域地质图(据参考文献[45]修改)
图2  三山岛金矿床区域地质图(据参考文献[34]修改)
图3  三山岛金矿矿脉切穿关系及典型蚀变特征
图4  三山岛金矿床成矿期次与阶段划分
图5  不同世代黄铁矿镜下结构(a,d,f,g,i)和BSE图像(b,c,e,h)特征
成矿阶段 黄铁矿世代 形态特征 矿物共生组合 BSE特征
黄铁绢云岩化阶段 Py1-a 半自形—它形,大小为50~200 μm,有大量绢云母和石英矿物包裹体 与绢云母和石英共生 不均一
Py1-b 表面光滑 与绢云母和石英共生 不均一
石英—黄铁矿±菱铁矿阶段 Py2-a 包裹少量方铅矿、黄铜矿等矿物 与自然金、方铅矿、黄铜矿和石英共生 暗色
Py2-b 表面光滑 与菱铁矿共生 亮色
石英—多金属硫化物阶段 Py3-a 包裹大量的方铅矿、黄铜矿等矿物 与自然金、方铅矿、黄铜矿和石英共生 暗色
Py3-b 表面光滑 与自然金、方铅矿、黄铜矿和石英共生 亮色
表1  三山岛金矿床不同亚类黄铁矿特征
图6  不同亚类典型黄铁矿激光剥蚀曲线
黄铁矿世代 分析编号 Co Ni Cu Zn As Ag Sb Te Au Pb Bi Co/Ni Pb/Bi
检测限 0.01 0.14 0.41 1.05 0.41 0.05 0.02 0.23 0.02 0.06 0.01
Py1-a SSD-2-1 374 210 0.33 0.96 627 0.10 0.05 0.48 0.02 1.34 1.05 1.78 1.28
SSD-2-2 456 137 5.04 1.26 34.53 3.15 0.38 5.14 0.08 21.51 49.32 3.32 0.44
SSD-2-3 437 442 11.51 0.62 256 2.26 0.48 3.69 0.17 17.66 23.07 0.99 0.77
SSD-2-4 431 198 5.65 0.97 208 2.77 0.83 5.00 0.16 45.24 47.07 2.18 0.96
SSD-2-5 360 245 7.80 1.14 55.50 14.00 0.61 8.44 0.10 48.36 49.25 1.47 0.98
SSD-17-1 9 074 194 7.07 0.39 36.45 0.05 0.01 1.59 0.00 1.33 3.70 46.69 0.36
SSD-17-2 2 263 1 141 2.62 0.03 1 045 0.07 0.23 2.84 0.12 1.64 5.25 1.98 0.31
Py1-b SSD-2-6 21.66 212 1.75 0.67 1 914 1.57 0.83 1.85 0.22 13.53 6.74 0.10 2.01
SSD-2-7 110 355 1.20 0.49 1 366 0.35 0.20 0.49 0.05 4.26 2.07 0.31 2.06
SSD-2-8 33.43 51.69 0.41 0.47 1 727 0.27 0.17 0.27 0.07 6.29 0.99 0.65 6.37
SSD-9-1 109 28.48 1.68 0.63 1 116 0.74 0.44 0.58 0.15 10.55 6.92 3.82 1.52
SSD-9-2 137 37.69 4.92 0.48 274 2.24 0.73 0.92 0.19 22.31 10.63 3.63 2.10
SSD-9-3 13.93 33.40 6.38 0.61 447 11.86 2.97 1.71 0.35 3 902 38.07 0.42 102
SSD-9-4 0.48 1.62 1.17 0.64 1 064 49.61 0.49 4.68 0.08 1 973 93.36 0.29 21.13
SSD-9-5 14.13 14.71 3.92 0.72 208 2.79 0.86 0.76 0.26 32.70 9.82 0.96 3.33
SSD-9-6 7.09 20.72 7.17 1.08 278 2.39 2.58 0.56 0.38 51.74 11.34 0.34 4.56
SSD-9-7 5.70 23.25 1.52 0.55 497 48.77 0.90 5.19 0.06 430 240.00 0.25 1.79
SSD-9-8 5.58 31.96 0.68 0.62 459 4.54 0.13 2.34 0.10 88.62 22.20 0.17 3.99
Py2-a SSD-7-1 0.10 3.87 19.55 2.64 202 13.64 8.32 0.46 0.38 65.52 0.95 0.02 68.95
SSD-7-2 0.16 92.55 77.91 2.73 185 2.92 1.27 0.47 0.12 17.35 0.24 0.00 71.79
SSD-7-3 0.10 8.22 462 19.94 3.59 4.69 0.59 0.10 0.01 32.06 0.08 0.01 423
SSD-7-4 0.34 0.32 9.89 0.34 1 288 10.23 3.81 0.21 0.20 15.71 0.12 1.06 127
Py2-b SSD-7-5 14.75 138 2.40 1.79 2 263 0.52 1.06 0.24 0.09 10.45 0.23 0.11 45.24
SSD-7-6 1.34 221 0.46 0.19 2 566 0.08 0.06 0.11 0.03 1.48 0.02 0.01 69.42
SSD-7-7 2.87 938 0.46 0.53 3 211 0.01 0.18 0.05 0.01 2.07 0.03 0.00 75.96
Py3-a SSD-17-3 2.14 242 1 005 232 30.53 92.78 8.80 1.66 0.84 2 848 0.02 0.01 1.23×105
SSD-17-4 31.16 675 32.81 6.10 1 508 1.37 2.82 0.05 0.13 39.54 0.01 0.05 3 990
SSD-17-5 8.82 211 8.56 1.88 175 4.92 4.49 0.05 0.22 76.18 0.02 0.04 4 441
SSD-17-6 0.06 9.39 165 16 737 6.24 37.61 3.67 0.00 0.38 43.18 0.01 0.01 4 374
SSD-17-7 1.43 50.59 241 18 904 69.97 37.14 5.74 0.07 0.68 124 0.03 0.03 3 597
Py3-b SSD-17-8 1.39 9.21 227 9 073 743 32.08 10.08 0.00 0.87 101 0.02 0.15 4 367
SSD-17-9 2.52 63.09 201 214 64.45 4.00 2.72 0.05 0.04 36.47 0.00 0.04
SSD-17-10 46.55 27.83 28.07 3.28 8 320 19.68 1.65 0.19 7.80 408 0.00 1.67
SSD-17-11 5.63 74.39 0.90 3.38 2.84 1.38 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.23 0.00 0.08
SSD-17-12 0.16 22.96 367 14 262 2.54 120 3.96 0.07 3.10 68.50 0.02 0.01 4 424
SSD-17-13 0.21 14.09 678 17 412 1.93 280 7.21 0.06 36.55 118 0.02 0.01 7 358
表2  不同亚类黄铁矿LA-ICP-MS微量元素分析结果(×10 - 6 )
图7  三山岛金矿各亚类黄铁矿微量元素含量特征蛛网图
图8  黄铁矿微量元素相关图解
图9  三山岛金矿不同阶段黄铁矿Co vs Ni 含量关系
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